Another aspect of reading comprehension is the ability to follow direction in written communication. The students should  be able to study map, on which certain directions are given or indicated… at ASCON Topo-your destination.


In your own sentence explain the passage you have just studied.

Aspect: Composition


Expository essay explains how something is made or done by following a process. It reveals the secret of doing things. The aim of expository writing is to inform, to instruct or bring someone else to one’s point of view.

Examples of Topics

  1. How to prepare my local food
  2. How to make tie and dye (campala)
  3. How to my local game (ayo)

Elements of Writing

An expository essay is one in which the writer attempts an exposition or explanation of an idea, or how to do or make something.

The elements of writing are:

  1. Introduction
  2. The body of the essay
  3. Conclusion


State the elements of writing.


Speech Work: Nasal Sounds /m/, / n/ /ŋ/

Structure: Verb (Passive Verbs)

Reading Comprehension: Behaviour of Students

Composition: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

LiteratureStructure and themes in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism’

Aspect: Speech Work

Topic: Nasal Sounds /m/, / n/ /ŋ/

The nasal sounds are produced as a result of closure in the mouth and the air flow escaped through the nose. The examples are stated below;


man, moon, make, name, bomb, claim, frame, lame, damn, hymn, condemn, bomb, comb, dumb, climb, plumb, crumb, grammar, commission, etc.

In the following words, ‘m’ and not ‘b’ is the end sound even though ‘b’ can be seen. It is not pronounced. Plumb,dumb, climb, comb, tomb, bomb, numb, lamb, crumb.

More so, ‘m’ is the end-sound of these words and not ‘n’. Hymn, condemn, solemn.


name, nose, neck, new, note, stone, brain, gnash, gnat, gnaw, know, knowledge, knot, knit, knew, manner, banner, nanny, funnel, cranny, etc.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘m’ at word final positions, it is not pronounced. Examples: damn, hymn, condemn, column.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘k’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘k’ is silent. Examples: know, knot, knew, knit, etc.

When ‘n’ is placed after ‘g’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘g’ is silent. Examples: gnash, gnaw, gnat, etc.


sing,  king, ring, bank,  bring, ink, spring, song, hang, tongue, bang, plank, bangle, anxious, drink, function, precinct, minx, etc.

Aspect: Structure


Passive Structure

This is when the sentence is reversed from the object form to subject form. E.g. A ball is kicked by me.

Present Simple Tense

(a) Active: I kick a ball.

(b) Passive: A ball is kicked by me.

(a) Active: He writes two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters are written by him.

Past Tense

(a) Active: I kicked the ball.

(b) Passive: The ball was kicked by me.

(a) Active: The boy wrote a letter.

(b) Passive: A letter was written by the boy

Present Continuous Tense

(a) Active: I am kicking a ball.

(b) Passive: A ball is being kicked by me.

(a) Active: He is writing two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters are being written by him.

Present Perfect Tense

(a) Active: I have kicked the ball.

(b) Passive: The ball has been kicked by me.

(a) Active: He has written two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters have been written by him.

Aspect: Reading Comprehension


Text: NOSEC Book 1 page 162-163.

Extract: The behaviour of some students nowadays gives us a lot of concern. I cannot just understand why they choose to mis-behaviour…he referred to as his brothers and sisters.


In your own opinion briefly discuss your experience on behaviour of students in your class during lesson.

Aspect: Composition

Topic: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

  1. Title of essay
  2. Introduction
  3. Body of the essay
  4. Conclusion

Expository essay tells us how things are done through description of a process.

Before you start writing, you need to understand the topic very well, think deeply about it (brainstorming) and then itemize the points to be discussed. Then re-arrange the points in a logical manner. The paragraph must be fully developed.


Discuss this topic in the class with your classmates: The Evil of Unemployment in My Country.

You may use the following points as guidelines in developing your composition (essay). Discuss each point in one paragraph. Some common problems associated with unemployment are:


Armed robbery

Hired assassination


Affliction by diseases

Broken marriages

Untimely death (e.g. suicide)


Paragraph Linkers: Also, But, However, Meanwhile, Apart from these, In addition to these etc.

Use any three of these points to develop the body of your essay.

Aspect: Literature



Speech Work: Stress

Structure: Verbs (Active and Passive Voice)

Comprehension: The Taxi Driver

Composition: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

Literature: Poetry

Aspect: Speech work

Topic: Stress

Sub-topic: Introduction to Stress

Stress, in English Language is the extra force (emphasis) placed on the part of a word to receives strong pronunciation than the other. In English the part or chunk that the word is divisible into is called syllable. Therefore, a particular syllable (sound unit) that is pronounced more than the other is called the stressed syllable. In speech, stress helps us to differentiate the meaning of a word that has the same spelling but different meaning and belong to different part of speech.

NOTE: A noun is stressed  in the first syllable and verb is stressed on the second syllable of two syllable words.


NOTE: A one-syllable word cannot be stressed in English because it has only one syllable; stress can only start from two syllables.

Pronounce these words: EN-ter, O-pen, PA-per, MO-ney, BO-rrow, a-LIVE, di-VINE, a-PPLY, be-WARE, en-JOY, etc.


  1. Define stress in your own word.
  2. What is the part that pronounced more the other called?
  3. Give examples of stressed words.

Aspect: Structure

Topic: Verbs

Verbs are the action words in sentences.

Active structure is when the action is performed by the subject. Ee.g. I kick a ball.

Examples of active verbs are come, sit, stand, write, do, kick, draw, eat, etc.

Highlighting the Rules of Passive Voice

Passive voice is when the object of a sentence takes the place of the subject and the subject is placed in the position of the object while the verb “be” is used with the past participle. For example, “Mary beat the boy “(active voice) becomes “The boy was beaten by Mary (passive voice).

In the active voice, “Mary” is the subject of the sentence while “the boy” is the subject (grammatical) in the passive voice though the sentences mean the same thing. The verb “be” comprises “is, are, was and were”. More examples:

  1. I saw Paul (Active voice).
  2. Paul was seen by me (Passive voice).
  3. We ate some mangoes (Active voice).
  4. Some mangoes were eaten by us (Passive voice).

(a) Now, take note of the changes that usually occur while writing passive sentences from active ones. Object form of the subject.


(b) The verbs also change apart from above pronouns.



  1. Define passive verb.
  2. Explain the transformation that take place in passive voice of verb
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