Chemistry Exam Lessons



  • Preparation of Standard Solutions.
  • Indicators
  • Calculations based on Acid-Base Titration.


There are two types of quantitative analysis namely: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.  Volumetric analysis is based on volume measurement while gravimetric analysis involves direct mass measurement.

Volumetric analysis is carried art using Titration.  In titration, a standard solution (one of known concentration must be using be used to react with a solution of unknown of concentration)


A standard solution is a solution of which the concentration is known .A standard solution is prepared by weighing a pure solute, for instance, and dissolving it in a suitable solvent, usually water, and making up the solution to a definite volume in a volumetric flask.

For instance, a solution known to contain exactly 10.6g of anhydrous sodium trioxocarbonate (IV), Na2CO3, in 1 dm3 of solution is a standard solution.

Preparation of 0.1mol/dm3NaOH

         40g NaOH dissolved in 1 dm3 of the water gives 1.0mol/dm3 solution

            XgNaOH will be dissolved in 1 dm3 of water to give 0.1mol/dm3

            Xg = 40g x 0.1mol/dm3 /1.0mol/dm3

= 4g

Therefore, 4g of sodium hydroxide pellet is measured, dissolved in water and made up to 1dm3 mark to obtain 0.1mol/dm3NaOH

Preparation of 0.1mol/dm3HCl

To prepare 0.1mol/dm3HCl, the dilution formula is used to determine the volume of the stock acid that will be measured and dissolved in water to obtain the desired concentration.

The dilution formula is C1V1 = C2V2

Where C1 = concentration of stock acid = 11.6mol/dm3 (for HCl)

            V1 = volume of stock acid     

            C2 = desired concentration of acid = 0.1mol/dm3

            V2 = volume of water = 1000cm3 (1dm3)

            V1 = C2V2 / C1= 0.1 x 1000/ 11.6 = 8.6cm3

Thus, 8.6cm3 of the stock acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and added to water, then made up to 1dm3 to obtained 0.1 mol/dm3HCl.


  1. Describe how to prepare 0.05mol/dm3 H2SO4
  2. List the apparatuses used during volumetric analysis(titration)


Acid-base indicators are dyes that change colour when according to the pH of the medium. The table below shows some titration and their suitable indicator:

Acid / base                             Indicator

Strong acid and strong base    methyl orange or phenolphthalein

Strong acid and weak base      methyl orange

Weak acid and strong base     phenolphthalein

Weak acid and weak base       No suitable indicator


The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute in a given volume of the solution.  It can be expressed as mol/dm3 or g/dm3.

Molar concentration

The molar concentration of a compound is one which contains one mole or the molar mass of the compound in 1dm3 of the solution. Unit of molar concentration is mol/dm3

Mass concentration 

The mass concentration of a compound is the mass of the compound contained in 1 dm3 of solution. The unit is g/dm3

Relationship between Molar concentration and Mass concentration

Concentration = number of moles / volume  = n/V………………(i)

Number of moles, n = C x V ……………………..(ii)

But, number of moles, n= m/M

Where M = molar mass and m = mass

Substituting n=m/M into …….(ii)

We have m/M = C x V

That is, m/V = C x M

But m/V = mass concentration

Therefore, mass concentration = molar concentration x molar mass = C x M


Burette reading in (cm3)Rough1st titration2nd titration3rd titration
Final burette reading23.4023.2028.2034.10
Initial burette reading0.0010.0005.0011.00
Volume of acid used (titre)23.4023.2023.2023.10

Average volume of acid used =  (23.20 + 23.20 + 23.10) / 3

                                                = 23.17cm3


  1. Which substance is added to the base during titration experiment?
  2. What is the colour of methyl orange in a base?
  3. What is the point at which the titration experiment appears to complete called?
  4. State three differences between electrolytic cell and electrochemical cell
  5. Calculate the standard e.m.f of a cell given that the e.m.f of Zn2+/Zn and Cu2+/Cu are -0.76V and +0.34V respectively

READING ASSIGNMENT: New School Chemistry SSS by O. Y. Ababio (6th edition) pages 165-168


SECTION A: Write the correct option ONLY

1.         The indicator used when titrating a weak acid against a strong base isA. methyl orange B. phenolphthalein C. methyl redD. any indicator

2.         The colour of phenolphthalein in acids is   A. blue    B. red    C.colourlessD. yellow

3.         Which of the following formulae is direct for amount n? A. n=C/p B. n=M/m C. n=C x V D. n=C x m

4.         The mass concentration of a substance can be expressed as A. mass/densityB. molar concentration/molar mass     C. mass/volume D. number of moles x volume

5.         At the end point there is A. a colour change     B. no change of colourC. decrease in mass     D. an increase in mass


  1. Define the following terms (a) molar concentration (b) Equivalent point
  2. 160cm3 of distilled water is added to 40cm3 of 0.500mol/dm3 H2SO4 solution. Determine the concentration of the diluted solution.