English JSSCE

Consonant contrast

To pronounce /s/, the tip of the tongue is raised towards the root/ridge of the front teeth. The sides of the tongue touch the upper teeth. There is a little opening between the tongue and the teeth. The air from the mouth passes through this opening. No activity is going on in the voice box. /s/ is a voiceless consonant. When there is a lot of noise in a place of meeting sometimes we use /s/ to make people keep quiet: shshsh…….

To pronounce /ʒ/, the tongue remains in the position for /s/ but we use the air from the lungs.

Activity is going on in the voice box. /ʒ/ is a voiced consonant.

In written English, /s/ is spelt in the following forms.

Sh (shut, shore, cushion…), ch (machine, chalet, chassis…), ce (ocean…), ti (nation), ci (ancient, special, species…)

Notice that in written English, /ʒ/ may be spelt in any of the following forms.

S (measure, pleasure, visual,….), si (decision, confusion, division,….), g (garage, regime, genre,….).

/s/         /ʒ/

mission vision

marshal measure

pressure pleasure

shave    save

addition division

pleasant pleasure


/s/ is heard in the following sentences.

Shut the door please

Parts of Lagos is on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean

I want only two cubes of sugar in my tea.

The ancient Songhai empire was destroyed.

Do you know the passion flower?

/ʒ/ is heard in the following sentences.

You need a ruler to measure this room.

There are two garages for our cars.

The referee’s decision is final in a match.

Usually our day begins with prayers.

In a democratic regime people vote to elect their leaders.


Write out five words each for consonants /s/ and /ʒ/.


Underline the /ʒ/ consonant from the following sentences.

The man has lost his vision; he is blind.

The casualty ward of the hospital is empty.

I spend my leisure time reading novels.

His regime as president was peaceful.

We need revision exercises before our exam.

TOPIC: Suffixes – Verb Derivations

Some suffixes help us turn some words into verbs. Now, study the following:

Suffix   Original Word    Verb

-ify       beauty   beautify

simple   simplify

deity     deify

false      falsify

null       nullify

solid     solidify

terror    terrify

-ize       synthesis            synthesize

popular popularize

practical            practicalize

actual    actualize

organ    organize

sensitive            sensitize

critic     criticize

-en        sharp     sharpen

dark      darken

damp    dampen

length   length

broad    broaden

strength strength

straight  straighten


State what a suffix is in one sentence.

Write down three suffixes that can help change some words to verbs

Choose any two of the suffixes studied in this unit and find ten verbs that can be formed from each of them.


TOPIC: Adverbials

Adverbials are the words that tell us more about verbs. It gives additional information about verbs. There are various types of adverbs. Thus:

Adverb of Time: This tells us about a particular time that an action takes place. It answers the question when? E.g: early, late, today, tomorrow, next week, etc.

The students came early.

I will see you tomorrow.

Adverb of Place: This type of adverb tells us the exact place where the action takes place. It answers the question where?E.g.: here, there, inside, outside, indoor, outdoor etc .

They slept here.

Tell that boy to go there.

Adverb of Manner: This kind of adverb describes how the action is being carried out. It answers the question how? E.g.: slowly, quickly, hard, loudly, quietly, secretly, fast, etc.

The boy ran quickly.

The old man walks slowly.

Adverb of Condition: This is conditional adverb. It starts with: if, unless, except, in as much as etc.

The students will pass the examination if they study hard.

If there is  enough time we shall have our meeting today.

Adverb of Frequency: This adverb tells us about how often an action or event takes place. E.g. always, frequently, often, normally, regularly, rarely, occasionally, etc.

He comes to school regularly.

They always go home.

Adverb of Reason: This type of adverb tells us about reason why an action is being carried out. E.g.

He passed because he worked hard.

The girl failed because she was lazy.

Adverb of Purpose: This tells us about the purpose for which the action was carried out. E.g. He ran so fast so that he could win a gold medal.

Intensifiers: These are words that make other words stronger, larger. E.g. very, too, much, fairly, so, highly, totally.

The house is very big. The house is big. (without intensifier)

It is so good. It is good. (without intensifier)

Let your light so shine.

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