Computer Studies Notes

Data and Information

Definition of Data

Data is a raw facts that need to be processed.It  is a representation of unprocessed facts about people, places, events, objects or transactions recorded from which information can be prepared.

Examples of Data

  1. Name e.g. Segun, Peter, Taye ect.
  2. Dates e. g. 21st January 2009, 2009-08-24 etc.
  3. Numbers e. g. 1, 2, 3. 4, 5 etc.
  4. Occupations e. g. Doctor, Footballer, Lawyer etc.
  5. Nationality e. g. Nigerian, Iranian, Togolese etc.

Sources of Data

(i)    Books

(ii)  Document

(iii) Presentations

(iv) Through Interviews

(v) Worksheet etc.

(vi) Databases

Types of Data

Data can be classified into four types:

  1. Alphabetic
  2. Numeric
  3. Alphanumeric
  4. symbols
  • Alphabetic Data: They are those data that consists of letters. Examples are A, B, X, W.
  • Numeric Data: They consists of numbers only. For example 1, 7, 20 etc.
  • Alphanumeric Data: They are data that contains both letters and numbers e.g Y2K
  • Symbolic Data: This represents any symbolic value e. g +, { }, . >, <


  1. What is Data?
  2. Mention four types of Data.


Information is the data that have been processed .

Sources of Information

There are two sources of information: primary and secondary

  • Primary source: This is the origin of an item of information e. g eyewitness to an event, place in question, the document under scrutiny etc.
  • Secondary source: It provides already made information e.g. internet, television, newspapers, magazines, textbooks etc.

Examples of information documents include: Report card, bank account balance, identity card, PHCN bill, staff salary , advertisement of vacancy, C- caution,  Zebra crossing the road is an indication for road user to stop for people to cross.Traffic light showing green, red and orange.

Forms of information:

  • Visual: This is information in graphical or pictorial form e.g photographic.
  • Oral: This is any information communicated by mouth.
  • Sensory: This is any information passed through the five sense organs.
  • Written: This a hand written or printed form.
  • Historical: This refers to information known and recorded about activities, events or transactions which happened in the past e. g a student’s medical history, educational history etc.
                      Types of Information                               Sources
Current informationMagazines, Newspapers, Journals, Internet
Historical informationBooks, Journals, Older magazines
Detailed informationBooks, Journals, Internet
Scholarly informationBooks, Journals, Proceedings
Primary informationDiary, interviews, letters, Archives, Raw data.

Qualities of good Information

  • A good information should be complete for its purpose.
  • It should be relevant.
  • It should be accurate.
  • It should be meaningful to the user.
  • It should be communicated to the right person.
  • Its volume should be manageable.
  • It should be timely.
  • It should be communicated through an appropriate channel of communication.


We have learnt about  data, the sources, types and examples of data. Also about  information, sources, examples, and qualities of good information.     


  1. Differentiate between data and information
  2. State two sources of information
  3. Mention five forms of information.
  4.  List three examples of information


  1. A  processed data is called …….. (a) files (b)component (c) information (d) field.
  2. The following characteristics of a good information except.(a)accuracy (b)relevant (c)precise (d) written
  3. The basic raw facts and figures are referred to as……. (a)information (b) data (c)report (d) history
  4. which of the following refers to events, activities and transactions that happened in the past? (a) timely (b) future (c) present (d) historical
  5. the forms of information include the following except. (a) visual (b) oral (c) sensory (d) written


1. Define data and information.

2. State four sources of data and two sources of information.

3. State four qualities of good information.

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