Basic Science Notes

Family health: Sanitation

Sanitation can be defined as the process whereby our bodies, clothes, shoes and environments are kept clean at all times, to prevent the microbial infections.

Personal health is a state of well being of our actual body, mind and the way we feel about ourselves and others. It is also defined by The World Health Organization (WHO) as a complete physical, mental and social well-being of human-being and not merely the absence of diseases.

The Importance Of Sanitation

  1. It will reduce to a bearable minimum the number of germs or pathogens in our bodies and environments.
  2. It will give us good looks and good health.
  3. It enables us to save money we might have spent on drugs and medical bills.
  4. It enables us to feel happy at all times.
  5. It makes us look neat and attractive in the public.
  6. It reduces government expenses on medical treatment of the citizens.
  7. It makes us energetic and able to perform our duties.

Methods of Keeping Human Bodies Clean

  • Taking bath regularly.
  • Cleaning of the fingers and toe nails.
  • Cleaning of the nose.
  • Cleaning of the ears.
  • Cleaning of the eyes.
  • Cleaning of the hair.
  • Cleaning of the hands.
  • Cleaning of the feet.
  • Cleaning of the teeth.
  • Cleaning of the clothes.
  • Cleaning of the shoes.


1. Differentiate between personal health and sanitation.

2. Mention five importance sanitation.


  • You must be technical and careful about the way you wash the ear, nose and eyes when removing dust and dirt.


  • The ear passage should be cleaned with cotton wool.


  • Do not use sharp objects in your nose.           
  • You should be careful in washing your nose.


  • Do not use chemical like soap to wash your eyes.
  • Avoid opening your eyes to a very bright light.


  • Cut your hair low and comb well to avoid lice living in it.


  • Clean your teeth with tooth paste and brush.
  • Wash your teeth as many times as you desire especially after each      meal.


  • Clothes should be thoroughly washed and dried in the sun and ironed properly.
  • Underwear should be changed daily for proper hygienic conditions.

Methods Of Keeping Homes Clean

  • Cleaning of the floor.
  • Cleaning of the furniture.
  • Cleaning of the window blinds.
  • Cleaning of the bedroom.
  • Cleaning of the sitting room.
  • Cleaning of the kitchen.
  • Cleaning of the bathroom.
  • Cleaning of the toilets.


  1. State three ways of taking care of the eyes.
  2. What are the methods of keeping our home clean?


  • We look attractive and beautiful.
  • It inhibits the breed of germs in our environment.
  • It helps in sharp and clear eyes.
  • The brain will be alert.
  • It helps to save money we might otherwise spend on medical treatment.


  • It makes us and our surrounding look untidy.
  • We become unhappy when we are sick.
  • It makes our parents spend money in the hospital when we are sick.
  • Poor hygiene causes diseases – causing micro-organisms to develop on our bodies, shoes,    clothes, homes.


1.       State the ways of improving good health in the family.

2.        Identify the advantages and disadvantages of personal hygiene.

3.        State three ways of taking care of the eyes.

4.       What are the methods of keeping our home clean?

READING ASSIGNMENT: Integrated Science made Easy By F.I Kehinde Page 1-9, Precious seed BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 1 PAGE 9-22


1          _______ is a state of well being of our actual body, mind and the way we feel about ourselves (a) Health (b) Family (c) Body (d) Relaxation

2          Poor hygiene causes ______ (a) Sound health (b) Sickness (c) Sharp and clear eyes (d) Wealth

3          Advantages of personal hygiene include the following except ______ (a) Looking attractive (b) ability to save more money (c) looking beautiful (d) looking untidy

4          _______ improves the health of the family (a) Exercise (b) Bad habit (c) Dirty environment (d) sickness

5          Which of the following might result from poor hygiene of the teeth (a) toothache (b) tooth decay (c) extracting the bad teeth (d) all of the above


1          Explain personal hygiene.

2          State three advantages and three disadvantages of hygiene.

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