Low carbon sources of key metals and minerals for the transition (e.g. battery metals), including deep sea

As we transition to a low-carbon future and expand the use of renewable energy and electric vehicles, the demand for certain metals and minerals, often referred to as “battery metals” or “critical minerals,” is expected to increase. These metals and minerals are essential components in renewable energy technologies, energy storage systems, and electric vehicle batteries. Here are some low-carbon sources of key metals and minerals for the transition:

  1. Lithium: Lithium is a critical component in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles and energy storage systems. While traditional lithium mining can have environmental impacts, there are efforts to develop more sustainable sources of lithium, such as lithium extraction from geothermal brines and lithium-rich clay deposits. Additionally, recycling lithium from used batteries can reduce the need for new mining.
  2. Cobalt: Cobalt is another key element in lithium-ion batteries, but its extraction has been associated with environmental and social challenges. To reduce the reliance on conventional mining, research is ongoing to develop cobalt-free battery chemistries. Additionally, recycling cobalt from used batteries is a promising way to reduce the demand for new cobalt resources.
  3. Nickel: Nickel is essential for increasing the energy density and stability of lithium-ion batteries. Low-carbon sources of nickel include laterite deposits and recycling nickel from used batteries or other nickel-containing products.
  4. Rare Earth Elements (REEs): REEs are vital for various clean energy technologies, including wind turbines and electric vehicles. Recycling rare earths from end-of-life products and developing new extraction methods with lower environmental impacts are being explored.
  5. Copper: Copper is a crucial metal in electric power systems, including power transmission and renewable energy generation. Sustainable copper mining practices and recycling can help meet the demand without exacerbating environmental issues.
  6. Deep Sea Mining: The deep sea holds significant potential reserves of metals like cobalt, nickel, and rare earth elements. Deep sea mining is an emerging area of interest, but it raises concerns about potential ecological impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. It is essential to carefully assess and manage these impacts while exploring deep-sea mining as a potential source of critical minerals.
  7. Urban Mining: Recycling and recovering metals and minerals from electronic waste, used batteries, and end-of-life products through urban mining can significantly reduce the need for new mining and lessen the environmental footprint of metal extraction.
  8. Sustainable Sourcing: Ensuring responsible and sustainable sourcing practices for metals and minerals is crucial for minimizing the environmental and social impacts associated with their extraction. Certifications and supply chain transparency initiatives can help promote sustainable sourcing practices.

As the transition to a low-carbon economy accelerates, it is essential to develop and implement strategies that prioritize responsible sourcing, efficient recycling, and the development of low-carbon extraction methods for critical metals and minerals. These approaches can support the growth of renewable energy technologies and electric mobility while minimizing the environmental and social consequences of their production.

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