Minerals in africa

Mineral                      Countries

  1. Copper Zambia, Zaire, (D.RC.), Uganda, Zimbabwe, South Africa

Namibia, Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania.

  1. Gold South Africa, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Zaire, Tanzania, Madagascar and


  1. Iron Ore Liberia, South Africa, Angola, Swaziland, Egypt and Guinea
  2. Manganese South Africa, Gabon, Ghana and Zaire
  3. Diamond Zaire, South Africa, Angola, Tanzania, Namibia and Sierra Leone
  4. Coal South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zaire, Tanzania,

Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia, morocco, Algeria and Nigeria

  1. Tin Ore Zaire, Namibia and Nigeria
  2. Petroleum Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Gabon, Egypt, Central African Republic,

Angola and Tunisia

  1. Natural Gas Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, GABON, Egypt, Central African

Republic, Angola and Tunisia

  1. Phosphate Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia
  2. Zinc Tunisia, Algeria, Zambia and Namibia
  3. Uranium Gabon and South Africa
  4. Bauxite Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Guinea
  5. Asbestors South Africa
  6. Silver Zambia and Namibia
  7. Columbite Nigeria
  8. Cobalt Morocco, Zambia
  9. Chromite South Africa, Zimbabwe
  10. Lead South Africa, Namibia, Algeria, Tunisia and Zambia
  11. Limestone Nigeria

Mineral                       Mining Methods

  1. Tin Open-cast dredging
  2. Crude oil Drilling
  3. Columbite Open-cast dredging
  4. Copper Open-cast method and deep underground or shaft method
  5. Gold Deep and open-cast method
  6. Iron ore Shaft and tunnel method or open-cast method
  7. Diamond Deep or open-cast method
  8. Coal Opencast or strip-mining methods
  9. Zinc Quarrying
  10. Silver Deep or open-cast method
  11. Lead Quarrying
  12. Limestone Open-cast method or mechanical contravaince (Quarrying)


  1. Revenue Generation: Much money is realized from minerals by the federal and state governments in whose area of jurisdiction, the mineral deposits are found and exploited.  Royalties and taxes are paid to federal and state government.
  2. Employment Opportunities: The mining of minerals provides employments opportunities to many Nigerians especially those residing very near the mining towns or centres
  3. Foreign Exchange Earning: The export of these minerals – coals, tin, columbite, petroleum etc. serves as foreign exchange earnings for the country.
  4. Improved Standard of Living: The earnings realized from these minerals are used to provide the basic social amenities which improve the standard of living of the people e.g.   the P.T.F (Petroleum Trust Fund)
  5. Provision of Basic Raw Materials: The various minerals mined in Africa serve as an essential ingredient for lubricating the various industries by providing them with raw materials which are later turned into finished products e.g. limestone production Ewekoro, Nkalagu and Okpilla (Nigeria) helps the various cement industries to produce cement.  Likewise, iron ore which is used by the respective rolling mills.
  6. Provision of Infrastructural Amenities: The presence of most minerals attracts some social amenities to the localities where they are mined such as hospitals, pipe-borne water, electricity and schools


  1. It leads to pollution of the environment
  2. Insufficient capital to exploit them
  3. Lack of trained personnel to mine and exploit the various minerals
  4. Instability on the price of the minerals
  5. Poor transport facilities
  6. Lack of equipment for mining the minerals
  7. Problem of power.

Mining activities are accident – prone


  1. The problems of pollution can be minimized through the enforcement of laws and other regulations
  2. The problems of capital can be solved by providing avenues for loans from banks or other sources.
  3. Labour problems can be solved by giving better conditions of service to workers
  4. The problems arising from fluctuating prices producing countries and consuming countries
  5. Better roads should be constructed in order to make transportation easier
  6. Proper equipments for the mining of these minerals should be manufactured or imported by the countries that need them
  7. Generating sets should be used to generate electricity to carry out mining

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