Basic Science Notes

Prevention of STI’S, HIV/AIDS.

Content: 1. Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS  

               2. Safe age for reproduction.

               3. Abstinence, responsible sexual behavior

               4. Avoid use of unscreened blood, injection, needles and clippers.

Sub-Topic 1: Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS.STI’S means sexually transmitted infections. These are diseases that can be contracted through sexual activities. Examples include gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, Candida infections and HIV and AIDS.


Aids is a very dangerous disease.The full meaning of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. An aid is caused by a virus called Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV-AIDS has no cure yet. Human body has an Immune defense system which protects our bodies against attacks from diseases. The virus (HIV) damages this Immune defense system.

When the virus is in the body; it is said to be HIV positive and that is what develops to HIV-AIDS. When this happens, the person’s body will not be able to fight any other diseases (such as fever, cough, tuberculosis, pneumonia etc) that attack person. The person will die after some time. HIV-AIDS can affect anybody no matter the age.

Safe age for reproduction:

The safe age for reproduction is when somebody is fully matured and ready to take responsibilities. You have to answer the following questions:

1. Are you matured enough, physically, socially and emotionally?

2. Have you finished schooling?

3. Do you have a good job to take care of the family you are about to start raising up?


1.   What are sexually transmitted diseases?

2.   What is the full meaning of HIV and AIDS?

3.   Examples of STI are? (3 Examples)

4.   STI fully means 

Sub-topic 2: Prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s

Signs of HIV\AIDS, how to detect it, how it can be transferred, and prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s.

Signs of AIDS

  1. Unexpected weight loss
  2. Getting tired easily
  3. Fever that is lasting more than one month.
  4. Diarrhea which is longer than one man
  5. Cold sores (wounds) all over the body
  6. Swollen glands at two or more places on the body for more than three months
  7. Coughing
  8. Sweating profusely.

How to detect HIV:

It can only be detected through blood test. It does not show in face or body, until it develops into AIDS. It can be passed from man to woman or woman to man.

Ways through which AIDS can be transferred:

  1. Through sexual intercourse
  2. Transfusion of unscreened blood
  3. Contaminated injection needles and syringes, razor blades, knife and other sharp objects.
  4. Through contaminated instrument during ear piercing, circumcision and putting of tribal marks
  5. Pregnant mothers to unborn babies

Prevention of STI’s, HIV-AIDS:  

     I. Abstinence from sex when you are not married

     II. Husbands and wives should be faithful to each other

     III. Use sterilized clippers, needles and injections

     IV. Screen the blood vary well before transfusion or passing to the

          body of a sick person. Safe age for reproduction is full adult.

     V. Boys and girls should wait till time of marriage before having sex.

     VI.  Do not have boy or girl friend before marriage.


  1. What are antibodies and what are their functions?
    1. What are ways of preventing STI and HIV
    1. Name three diseases that are caused by contact with human waste and dirty water.
    1. How can you detect HIV-AIDS
    1. What is the function of the body immune defense system?

Reading assignment:

STAN pages 94-95 and basic science made easy by Kehinde pages 56-59.

Weekend assignment.

Discuss the consequences of irresponsible sexual behavior among youths.

Week       3                   


Topic:     Drug Abuse/Addiction/Misuse

Content:   1. Meaning of Drugs.

                  2. Uses of drug

                  3. Side effects of drugs.

                  4. Drugs\ substances abuse.

             5. Misuse of drugs

                  6.  Other substances abuse

Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of drug:.

Drugs can be defined as any substance used to make medicine to cure disease and ailment or any substance which when introduced in to the body cures the body illness.

Examples of drugs are: –

  1. Aspirin
  2. Phensic
  3. Panadol
  4. Kola nut
  5. Alcohol

There are two types of drugs

  1. Common drugs
    1. Hard hard drugs

Uses of Drugs

  1. Drug can be used for medical purpose.
  2. It is used to reduce weight
  3. It is used to reduce pain
  4. It is used to reduce sleep
  5. It is used as stimulant
  6. It is used to cure illness.

SUB-TOPIC 2    Side effects of drugs.

When drugs are used in wrong way, they can lead to the following effects.

  1. They weaken the body
  2. They shorten one’s life span
  3. They can damage the internal organs of the body
  4. They can bring about lack of consecration
  5. They damage the brain
  6. They bring about irregular breathing
  7. They result in economical wastage.

Drugs are divided into two major ones, these are

I- Common drugs

II- Hard drugs – e.g. Cocaine, heroine   

Classification of drugs

 I Narcotics e. g Opium

II Sedatives and Hypnotics e .g Barbiturates

III Tranquilizers e. g Valium, Librum.

IV Hallucinogens e. g LSD (Lysergic acid diethyamide) and Marijuana.

V Stimulants e .g Amphetamine, Cocaine,

What is Drug Abuse?

 Drug Abuse is the taking of medically prescribed drugs inappropriately.


How drugs can be abused.

  1. Taking the prescribed drugs for a purpose other than that which it was intended
  2. Taking a dosage other than the recommended.       
  3. Taking drugs to induce sleep without prescription from a qualified medical doctor
  4. Taking drugs to gain confidence or boldness
  5. Taking drugs to attain full sexual satisfaction without prescription.
  6. Sharing a prescribed drug with other people
  7. Taking drugs that are not prescribed by Doctors.
  8. Taking of Expired drugs ignorantly.

Misuse of drugs

Some athletics use drugs in form of stimulants

      It is also used as muscle builder.

      It is also used to enhance one’s performances in competition.

Other substances abused include:

Tea, alcohol, coffee, kola nuts, tobacco, aspirin and other pain killers.

Alcohol affects the body first making you excited, then making you depressed. The other substances affect the body by causing excitement and preventing sleep.


 1..    Define drug                                                                                       

 2.     Mention some drugs you know

 3.     What are the uses of drug? 

 4.     Kindly write out some side effects of drugs

Reading assignment:

Read Basic Science Made Easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 60-63. Read STAN pages 98-99.

Weekend assignment:

1. What are drugs?                                                                                                                 

2. State the medical uses of two drugs.

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