Basic Science

Resources from non- Living Things


Minerals are usually natural endowment to particular communities. Minerals are naturally-occurring substances in the soil. Many minerals resources are found in the environment. Some are solid in nature, others are liquid in form while some are gaseous in nature. In Nigeria, minerals abound in many parts of the country. The presence of such minerals has resulted in the development of such areas. Many industries have been set up to prospect in mineral resources. Exploitation of minerals has in most cases caused strife, kidnapping and wars as is witnessed in the Nigerian Niger Delta areas.

Examples of minerals are petroleum, limestone, gold, coal, tin, salt, lead and zinc etc.

Some solid minerals cannot be used in the form in which they are found when dug out of the soil. They have to be refined into new products, which are useful. The process is called refining. Refining a mineral is done in factories built for a purpose.

Location of Solid Mineral Resources

Solid minerals are found in some areas in Nigeria


The Map of Nigeria

  • Limestone is found in Ewekoro in Ogun State, Nkalagu in Ebonyi State and Ukpilla in Edo state
  • Gold is found in Ilesha in Osun State, Bida (Niger state)
  • Tin and columbite is found in Kuru (Plateau State)
  • Coal is found in Udi hills (Enugu State)
  • Kaolin is found in Umuahia (Abia state)
  • Bitumen is found in Ondo state
  • Sand is found in Porthacourt (Rivers State)
  • Iron is found in Kogi state
  • Lead/Zinc is found in Ebonyi

Characteristics of Solid Materials

  • Diamond – Hard and lustrous
  • Gold – Lustrous
  • Coal – Black
  • Marble – Milky
  • Iron – Grey/brown

Importance of Solid Mineral Resources

  • Iron

This is used to make various types of household tools and office equipment like chairs, tables, door frames, etc. Iron is also used in the construction of bridges and building. Iron ore is used for manufacturing Iron sheets, rods and weights

  • Gold, Silver and Diamond

Gold, silver and diamond are used for making jewelleries, earrings, necklaces, medals and trophies. The wealth of a nation in foreign reserve is determine in gold value.

  • Coal

Coal is extracted unrefined and used for cooking. Also used in generating fuel. When processed, it can be converted into other useful materials like chemicals, paints, dye and fertilizers. It is also used to generate power, which is used to move trains.

  • Clay

Clay is a grayish sticky substance. It is useful in pottery industries. Sometimes, it combines with limestone and can be used to make cement and chalk.

  • Limestone

Limestone is a major material for the manufacture of cement used for building houses, construction of bridges, etc.

  • Sand

Used in making glass.

  • Bitumen

For tarring road surfaces

  • Zinc

For making roofing sheets

  • Lead

For making car batteries


  1. Which of these is not a solid mineral
    b. Iron
    c. Petroleum
    d. Coal
  2. Which of these solid materials is used for the production of cement
    b. Coal
    c. Limestone
    d. Iron
  3. Roofing sheets are made from
    b. Zinc
    c. Coal
    d. Gold
  4. _____ can be found in Udi hills
    b. Zinc
    c. Coal
    d. Gold
  5. _____ is used in making glass
    b. Zinc
    c. Coal
    d. Gold

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