Speech writing

These sounds are described as nasals because air flows out through the nose as they are produced. They are peculiar in the sense that their sounds come out entirely through the nasal caunty.

/m/                  /n/          /  oo/

Man               neat           sing

Mock             new          ring

Some             snow       wrong

Bossom         annoy      long

Summer       can           hanging

Mess             cleaner    shrunk.


Relative clause or adjectival clause: The relative clauses, like the adjective, perform the functions of qualifying or modifying a noun or a pronoun. It is introduced by relative pronouns such as: ‘who’, ‘which’, ’whose’, ‘that, ’when’, ’where’,’ whom’ etc.


Anyone who loves the angel will be ordained

Function: qualifies the pronoun “anyone”

The house which Johnson built has been marked

Function: qualifies the noun “house”


One of the greatest achievements of man in society is the development of an efficient transport And communication system. Because of this development, goods produced on farms and in the factories are easily moved from places where they are produced to the markets where they are sold. Contacts between diferent groups, without the need for travel, has also been made possible with the development  of modern communication  equipment such as the telephone and telex.

The development of transport on wheels meant that roads needed to be built. It costs a lot of money to build motorways or highways because they have to cut  through forest, hills and rocks. Where there are rivers, bridges must be built. All materials  with which roads are built also have to be transported to the site.

The roads built and maintained by the Federal Government are called ‘ trunk A roads’ . those built and maintain by state  governments  are ‘ trunk B roads’. The ones built by local government authourities are classified ‘ trunk C roads’.

Within the townships, there are bus and taxi services. Such services are also available between one town and another. A lot of people are engaged in transport business.Transport by railways was first developed in Great Britain in the coal-mining areas of the north-east of England. Coal was initially used as fuel for trains which were powered by steam.

However, air transport is a very fast way of travelling but it is very expensive and so is used mainly to move people, small goods or those which might perish and therefore need quick transportation. Transport by air has gone through various stages of development. Today there is international cooperation in the use of airspace, airports and air-services. There are different types of aero planes and aircrafts .concord , for example, travels at twice the speed of the aero plane called Boeing 747, which preceded it. Concorde is used on long journeys and mostly by businessmen. These are also jet-planes and piston-operated planes. Jet planes are mainly cargo- planes which can travel almost 600 miles an hour. They fly at higher altitudes than regular air planes. The piston-operated planes are more convenient for shorter journeys and they are slower and use less fuel.

The place where planes take-off and land is called airport. An international airport is more equipped than a local airport. Airport usually have maintenance shops for repair, fuel storage tanks and instruments for forecasting weather. They also have radar, light signals, control towers and other facilities to transmit and receive messages from planes in flight.

The person who flies an aircraft is called a pilot. The compartment in the plane for the pilot is the cockpit while the body of an aero plane is called the fuselage. The wings and tail are fitted into the fuselage and a plane also has the under  carriage and wheels. A plane runs on the runway before taking off, that is climbs steeply with is undercarriage locked up. The pilot navigates the plane, seers it first by compass and by an indication from a ground radio navigation system. He then moves the plane the clouds after attaining a sufficiently high attitude. Before taking off and landing, passengers are advised to fasten their safety belts by the crew. On a passenger flight an aircraft’s crew includes the captain, his co-pilot and navigator who occupy the flight deck. In the cabin the crew consists of stewards or stewardesses who attend to the passengers. After an emergency landing, passengers and crew can leave the plane by emergency exists. Normally passengers embark on ( or board) and disembark from a plane at an airport.


In the following passage, the numbered gaps indicate missing words. against each number in the list below the passage are options labelled A – D. For each question, chose the word that is the most suitable to fill the numbered gaps in the passage.

An airport consists of a large space where 1 are provided. 2 where aircraft are serviced and a  3. This contains the offices of the airport authority, facilities for passengers who are embarking or disembarking and a  4. In  5, the pilot must follow internationally recognized flight paths and when in the vicinity airport, must obey orders  6 to him by air traffic control from the airport  7 about the speed, direction and  8 of his plane. He is also informed about 9  along his 10  and at his  11.

2HangarsControl towersGaragesWorkshops
3Control buildingTerminal buildingTowersTerminal tower
4Airline towerHangersWeather controlControl tower
7Control towerLanding control towerRunwayHanger
9Weather conditionCockpit conditionEngine conditionWings condition

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