English Notes

Structure: Active and Passive Voices, Prefixes and article writing

Voice is a term that is used to explain whether the performer of an action comes before the action (verb) or whether it comes after the verb in a sentence. When the performer comes before the verb (action) we say the verb is in the active form e.g.

Dairokilled a snake. (Active voice)

  S                    o

However, when the two nouns in the sentence above are swapped, we say the sentence is in the passive form.

A snake was killed by Dairo (Passive voice)

      S                                 o

Active Voice                                             Passive Voice

Bola prepared dinner.                               Dinner was prepared by Bola.

Shade wrote a letter.                                 A letter was written by Shade.

Daddy is building a house.                       A house is being built by Daddy.

Sola makes beads.                                     Beads are made by Sola.

John will kick the ball.                              The ball will be kicked by John.


  1. There is an exchange of positions between the subject and the object
  2. The tense of both voices (active and passive) must be the same.
  3. There is an introduction of ‘by’ in the passive voice
  4. A form of the verb ‘BE’ is also introduced in the passive voice.


Change the following sentences to the passive form.

  • Amaka sings a song.
  • Bukola was cooking a nice meal.
  • Emmanuel has posted the letter.
  • The principal granted me the permission.
  • They offered him a nice job.


Pg. 91 – 95 Lexis and structure, Olatunbosun

Pg. 238 Countdown English

  1. Vocabulary Development: Prefixes

A prefix is a group of letters or syllable which is attached to the front of a root word to form another word which usually changes its meaning.

The following are examples with their meaning.

Prefix                    Meaning                     New Words/Derivative

un-                         not                               unhappy, untrue

dis-                        not                               discomfort, dislike

non-                       not                               nonsense, non-smoker

mis-                       wrong                          mismanage, mislead

mal-                       bad                              malfunction, maltreat

super-                    exceeding                    supernatural, superman

out-                        exceed                         outdo, outlive

sub-                       below                          substandard,subhuman

hyper-                    beyond                        hypertension, hyperactive

anti-                       against                         anti-social, antiviral


Form words with these prefixes: pro-, inter-, trans-, pre-, over-, under-


Pg. 236 – 238 Lexis and structure,P.O.Olatunbosun

Writing: Article Writing


Definition, Features, Sample Question,Outline

An article is a type of writing that is meant to be published in a school magazines, a newspaper or a journal.

Basic Features

  1. It must have a heading
  2. It must have an introductory paragraph
  3. Its body should contain at least three well development paragraphs which should serve as the content of the writing. When added to the introductory and concluding paragraphs, the writing should not be less than five paragraphs. But it can be more
  4. It must contain a concluding paragraph
  5. Write your full name and your class, school, town or city as the situation may require. 

Outline: Women in Politics

  • Topic/Heading
  • Introduction: Men have dominated the political space for long
  • The effects of men’s domination
  • The need for women’s involvement (equality, less corruption, compassionate, talent use, example from other countries)
  • Conclusion: challenge the audience


Write an essay on the outlined topic above


pg. 39 – 42, Countdown English


  1. Give three rules of changing an active voice to a passive one.
  2. Write out the types of prefixes we have and what they mean.



Choose the correct options

1.         You will need to commit the formula ——memory (a) to (b) by (c) on  (d) in 

2.         We came ____ rail  (a)  on    (b)  with   (c) by    (d)  in

3.         How did you arrive at ____ unholy hour?

            (a) that a     (b) such an        (c) an such     (d) the such

4.         Jide was absent for __ of the meeting 

            (a)    plenty          (b) many      (c)  much      (d) many of

5.         Emily enjoys ___ soccer (a)  to play    (b)  play    (c) playing   (d) to be playing     


Test for Continuous Assessment, No B, pg 212 of Effective English

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