English Notes

Suffixes, Nasal Sounds and Vocabulary on Transportation


  1. Structure: Affixation: Suffixes
  2. Speech Work: Nasal Sounds (/m/ /n/ and /h/)
  3. Comprehension/Register: Vocabulary Associated with Transportation

Structure: Affixation: Suffixes

This refers to the addition of prefixes, suffixes and infixes to words leading to new words, meaning and word classes.

Examples (verbs)

  1. verbs+  –ment e.g.
  2. Enslavement, achievement
  3. Management, movement
  4. Development
  5. verbs + –ion e.g.
    • Action
    • Conclusion
    • Decision
  6. verbs+  ation
    • organise = organisation
    • document = documentation
    • mobilize = mobilization
  7. verb+–age
    • marry = marriage
    • drain = drainage
    • carry = carriage
  8. verb+ –ist
    • type = typist
    • separate = separatist
  9. verb+ –er / -or
    • teach = teacher
    • debate = debater
    • direct = director
    • oppress = oppressor
  10. verb + –ee
    • amputate = amputee
    • employ = employee
    • invite = invitee
  11. verbs+–ve, ant, -ing
    • correct = corrective
    • cure = curative
    • attend = attendant
    • appeal = appellant
    • clone = cloning
    • house = housing
  12.  verbs +–ry, ery/ ary
    • brew =brewery
    • refine = refinery
    • cook = cookery
    • dispense = dispensary

Examples (Adjectives)

  1. Adjectives+ –ness
    1. useful = usefulness
    1. useless = uselessness
    1. dry = dryness
    1. conscious = consciousness
    1. responsive = responsible
    1. sad = sadness
    1. ill = illness
  2. adjective +–ity, hood, -ance/ -ence
    1. ethnic – ethnicity
    1. public – publicity
    1. false – falsehood
    1. important = inportnace
    1. different = difference
  3. Adjectives+ancy, / -ency
    1. flippant – flippancy
    1. efficient – efficiency


Write six nominalizations using two suffixes, the and compounding.


Read page 170 and 198 ( spellings ant- iblee.t.c)

Speech Work: Nasal Sounds /m/ /n/ and /h/

Content: Description, Symbols, Examples


MMan, mark, cram, comb
MmComment, programme
MMan, mark, cram, comb
MmComment, programme

This is a bilabial nasal. Its production involves the coming together of the lips and air goes out through the nasal cavity.


This is a voiced nasal sound that is produced when the soft palate is lowered to cover the oral cavity and allow air to pass through the nasal cavity. “n” is silent when it occurs after “m” in word- final positions e.g. hymn, damn.

Nnab, ban, train
nnBeginning, planning


This is a voiced alveolar nasal that is produced like /n/  except that the back of the tongue forms a closure with the velum for the production of the /h/. This sound does not occur at the beginning of a word.

ngBang, rang, tongue, singer
nkThank, bank
nqConquer, banquet
AnxAnxious, anxiety

More examples

/m/                                        /n/                   /h/

Balm                                  barn                  bang

Bomb                                 born                  long

Some                                  son                    song


Choose the word, which contains the given sound .

  1. /m/ (a) stamp (b) nap (c) bright
  2. /n/  (a) clan (b) clang (c) climb
  3. /h/   (a) sting (b) can (c) storm



Oral English for Schools Colleges pages 63 – 66

Comprehension/Register: Vocabulary Associated with Transportation pg 160 – 166 Countdown English

  • Ocean liner –a ship used to convey passengers and some cargo across the ocean
  • Berth – place for a ship to anchor
  • Rudder – a wooden or metal blade at the back of a ship that swings to and fro to control its direction
  • Cargo – goods carried by ship, a place or vehicle.
  • Speedometer – an instrument in a vehicle for telling its speed
  • Chauffeur – a person employed to drive someone’s car
  • Commuter – a person who makes regular journey of some distance.
  • Freightliner/liner train – a train that carries lare amount of goods in special containers
  • Derail – to cause to run off the rails/railway lines
  • Terminus – the last stop on a railway.
  • Air liner – a large passenger aircraft
  • Fuselage – the main body of an aircraft.
  • Cockpit – the part of a plane or racing car in which the pilot and co-pilot sit.
  • Tarmac/runway – is a way for landing or taking off.
  • Terminal – a bus station for passengers going to or arriving from an airport.
  • Hangar – a big building (shed) where planes are kept.


Write out five other words an transportation and use them in sentences.


Pg. 160 – 166 Countdown English


Write out five words in which the nasal sounds are silent.



Choose the words which contain the phonetic sounds below

  1. /a:/ (a) Plait           (b) brand         (c) badge         (d) balm
  2. /ŋ/              (a) reign           (b) bring          (c) strange       (d) plunge
  3. /З:/             (a) chart           (b) skirt           (c) shell           (d) gull
  4. / dʒ /          (a) Garbage     (b) ledger        (c) measure      (d) knowledge
  5. /∂u/            (a) doll             (b) null             (c) role             (d) hall


Practice 1 page 183 unit 12

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