Types of sentences


  1. The declarative/ assertive sentences
  2. The imperative sentence
  3. The interrogative sentence
  4. The exclamatory sentence.
  • THE DECLARATIVE/ ASSERTIVE: is a statement of fact that declares or asserts what is true universally or habitually.


  1. Tinuade won the election
  2. Bola plays a lot
  3. Birds fly in the sky

THE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE: is used in giving commands


  1. Get out of the class.
  2. Leave out once.
  • Do as you are told.
  • THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE: as the name implies refers to questions asked in a direct manner


  1. Did you see the boy?
  2. Where are you coming from?
  3. Who are you looking for?
  • THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE: this is a statement that expresses emotions, like surprise, anger, joy, etc.


  1. It is good to see you!
  2. You look gorgeous!
  3. I am frustrated!

ASSIGNMENT: write out the types of sentence and give five examples each.


A letter is a writing communication sent by post or messenger “these two persons might be living in the same town, city, and country or may as well be living in different countries.


Letter writing is divided into two major types:

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter.


This is an official type of letter. In most cases, the persons involve in this types of letters are not known to each other. They may not have met in their lifetime. Everything about this letter is formal/official. The writer has to mind his/her language and tone. This letter could be from one person to a group of people e,g. letter for employment or (letter from a group of people to an individual) e.g a letter from a community to their local government chairman.


The following has to be put into consideration when writing a formal letter

  1. Two addresses
  2. Title of the letter
  3. The body of the letter (i) the language has to be formal (ii) the tone of the letter has to be respectful (iii) the need to be straight forward and brief (iv) answers must be given to all question asked,
  4. Subscription
  5. Signature

Two addresses: Ina formal letter two addresses are required from the writer, his/her own address and the address of the addressee.(the person he/she is writing the letter to.)


4, Mohammed Way,

P.o.Box 2641,

Benin city,

                                                                                                                                                     Edo  State.

14th June, 2014.

The Personal Manager,

Sumai Food Limited,

14, Oluyole Industrial Estate,

Ring Road,


Oyo State.

 SALUTATION: The common salutation used in a formal letter are: Dear sir or Dear madam as the case may be.

TITLE OF THE LETTER: Every formal letter has a title, it is this that shows or tells from the beginning what the letter is all about.

THE BODY OF THE LETTER: In a formal letter, the language has to be formal. Also, formal letter does not allow the use of slang and sweet mounting. The tone has to be respectful. This is because the writer may not know the age of the addressee, and he/she might not take it kind, if the tone is not courteous. The formal type of letter is known for its straight forwardness, there is no need beating around the bush. Where questions are asked, you must give detail to every question asked.

SUBSCRIPTION: The common subscription used in a formal letter is yours faithfully, ypu sign your signature before writing your name at the end of the letter.


  1. Many articles have appears recently in one of the national dailies criticizing the security system in your country.
  2. Write a letter to the edition of the daily contributing your views.



Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech or the variation in pitch.

Pitch means many things. However, in relation to speech, it means the rise or fall of the voice or sound. It relates to the speakers strong feeling; it also determines the strength of such feeling. Thus, pitch could rise or fall suddenly and heavily in a particular direction. It may be to low or high.


  1. EMOTIONAL: The most obvious function is to express a wide range of attitudinal meanings- excitement, boredom, surprise, friendliness etc. thus(i) it reflects the speaker’s vitality.(ii) it arouse or expresses the speaker’s emotions.(iii) it reveals the speaker’s attitude or character.
  2. GRAMMATICAL: Intonation performs some grammatical functions like making grammatical contrasts. It therefore helps in (i) identifying major units like clauses and sentences. (ii) Connecting parts of sentences. (iii) Distinguishing word classes. (iv) Identifying sentence types.
  3. INFORMATION STRUCTURE: Intonation conveys a great deal of what is new and what is already known in the meaning of an utterance e.g (i) I saw a BLUE car(not green) (ii) SAW a blue car(not have)
  4. INDEXICAL: Supra – segmental features also have a significant function as markers of personal identity and indexical function. They help to identity people as belonging to different social groups and occupations like preachers, market woman, soldiers etc.

Intonation is so important in English that it forms an important part of the spoken utterance and shows the speaker’s attitude to what he is saying or to his listener. Intonation may indicate doubtcertainty, disbelief, interest, surprise or indifference. Intonation and stress work together to convey special meaning in English. There are two basic patterns of intonation (also known as tones): they are the falling and rising tone.

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