Categories
Geography

Types of soil

TYPES OF SOILS

Broadly speaking, there are three types of soils based on properties that differentiate one from the other. They are sandy soils, clayey soils and loamy soils.

SANDY SOILS:

A soil is said to be sandy if the proportion of sand particles in a sample soil is very high. The grains of this type of soil are coarse, each measuring 0.2 to 2mm. The soil is loose and structure less because of the absence of colloids which bind soil together.

The pore spaces are very wide, thereby allowing air and water to run through very quickly. Sandy soils are thus both porous and highly permeable. Sandy soil is not good for farming because it is poor in nutrients.

PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL

  1. Sandy soil is coarse grains and gritty
  2. It is loose with large pore spaces
  3. It is well aerated and cannot hold water
  4. Percolation is high but capillarity is low
  5. It is not sticky when wet.

CLAYEY SOIL

Soil is said to be clayey if the proportion of clay in a sample of soil is very high. In this type of soil, the particle of soil is less than 0.02mm in diameter predominate, it has a good structural arrangement of soil particles tightly bound together by colloids. It is heavy soil thus it is very difficult to work on or cultivate.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAYEY SOIL

  1. Clay soil is tightly packed with little pore spaces
  2. It is poorly aerated and can hold water
  • It is fine grained and smooth
  1. It is sticky when wet and hard when dry
  2. Percolation is low and capillarity is high

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