Basic Science Notes

Activities of living things


 Types of movement

[i]Active movement: This occurs when a living thing moves by its own energy

[ii] Passive movement: This occurs when a living thing is carried by wind or water or animals from one place to another.

[iii] Bending movement: This occurs in plants which bend towards light, water or gravity.

Method of movementAnimalsOrgan
JumpingFrog, toad, monkey,Fore and hind limbs
WalkingMan, leopard, lion.Legs,
CrawlingSnake, lizard, crocodileBelly ,fore and hind limbs.
SwimmingFish, crocodileTails,  fins
FlyingBirds, bats, insects(butterfly)Wings,
NonePlantsBending of stem toward light
RunningGoats, dog, horse, ants,Fore and hind limbs
wrigglingSnakes and some wormsBelly, fore and hind limbs

Purpose of movement

[i] To search for food.

[i] To escape from dangers and enemies.

[iii] To respond to changes in the environment.

[iv] To seek reproductive mates or sites

Types of movement in plants are phototropism; movement towards light. Geotropism is the movement towards gravity.

Mode of feeding:

1. Authotrophic mode of feeding: This is found in green plants .Light energy is trapped by green plants and combined with inorganic materials (CO2) to produce photosynthesis.

2. Heterotrophic mode of feeding: This is found mainly in animals .They are unable to produce their own food hence depends on already manufactured solid food which must be digested and absorbed. Under this mode of feeding, organisms (animals) can be classified according to their feeding habits.

A] Herbivorous: These are the animals that feed mainly on plants. These are called ruminants. Examples are goats sheep and cattle.

B] Carnivorous animals:  These are animals that feed mainly on flesh. Examples are lion, cat and tiger.

C] Omnivorous animals: These are animals that can feed on both plants and animals materials e. g man.

Sub-topic 2


Types of reproduction:

  1. Asexual reproduction:
  2. Sexual reproduction.

[a] In plant

  1. Sexual reproduction: This is the reproduction of plant through seeds.
  2. Asexual reproduction: This is the process by which plant reproduces itself through vegetative means. This method includes cutting, layering, budding and grafting.

[b] Animal

Sexual reproduction: This is the fusion of male and female reproductive organs together .It is the only means of reproduction in animals.

Types of growth:

1. Apical is the growth that involves growing tip of plant, growing tall from time to time.

2. Intercalary is a type of growth that involves every part of the body growing at the same time.

Types of respiration

1. Aerobic respiration oxygen is used to liberate energy.

Anaerobic respiration involves a chemical process common with organisms like bacteria.


1. In a tabular form highlight the types of movement in animals.

2. Explain the two types of growth in living things

Sub-topic 3

Associated organs

MovementMuscles and the skeletal system, shoot (phototropism), root (geotropism)
RespirationNose, lungs, heart, stomata, lenticels
NutritionMouth, stomach, intestines, leaves, root, stems.
IrritabilityNervous system, leaves
GrowthBones, muscles, shoots, roots, stem
ExcretionSkin, kidney, stomach, lenticels
ReproductionMale and female reproductive organs, Flowers, buds.

 Purpose/importance of the activities

Movement: It enables plants and animal to search for food. It enables animals to change position.

Respiration: (Wastes product) carbon (IV) oxide gets rid of the body systems.

Nutrition: this enables plants and animals to get energy for their daily activities. This enables plant and animal to grow.

Irritability: it enables plants and animals to be sensitive to changes in their environment.

Growth: The food eaten is used to increase size and weight of plants and animals.

Excretion: All the wastes product are eliminated from the body system during excretion.

Reproduction: Plants and animals are able to bring forth young ones like themselves. This brings about increase in population .It is for continuity of life.


  1. How many types of movement do you know in plant?
  2. Mention the importance of the activities in living things.

Reading Assignment:

Read Stan pages 104-108.

Weekend assignment:

1. Mention the activities of living things.

2. State the purpose of the activities mentioned above.

3. State reasons why you will group Human Being as special animal. 

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