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Agricultural Science JSSCE Notes

BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE

CONTENT

BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE

This refers to the various field of study in agriculture. It goes beyond that to explain different areas in which a person interested in practicing agriculture might decide to specialize in. As we have learnt in the previous lessons that agriculture encompasses the production of food of all kinds be it plant produce or produce from animals this tells us that there are vast areas in which an agriculturist, farmer, researcher, trader or even student can dive into. The following are the some of the prominent branches in agriculture. Under each branch there could be a whole lot of sub branches.

1) SOIL SCIENCE

Soil science is the science which deals with the study of the soil, its formation,the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The soil is the home of the roots of plants. The roots spread in all directions and by holding on the soil, the plant is kept in position. Plants draw all their water and nourishment from the soil. The soil is therefore the source of  food for plant, animal and man.

2) CROP SCIENCE

Crop science teaches the principle and practice of cultivating and managing crop plants grown for human and animal consumption or for industrial uses. Crops include maize, rice, yam, cowpea, tomato etc. When this study is widened to include other plants which are not eaten by human beings or animals, it is known as Plant Science.When crop science and soil science are combined to form one field of study, then we have Agronomy.

EVALUATION

  1. What are the braches of Agriculture?
  2. What is Soil Science?
  3. What is Crop Science?

3) HORTICULTURE

This is the scientific, study or practice of growing fruits, vegetable, ornamental   plants/flowers and plantation crops for profit or pleasure.Ornamental plants are used in beautifying places. E.g. Palm tree, Christmas tree, Allamanda, Rose flower.

EVALUATION

  1. What is Horticulture?
  2. What is Animal Science?

4)AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Agricultural Economics deals with the business aspects and development of agriculture. It is more concerned with the financial or economical aspect of Agriculture. It handles the marketing area of agricultural products.

5) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Agricultural Engineering is concerned with the repairs and fabrication of different simple and heavy duty mechanical implement.Agricultural implement can be broadly classified into simple tools and heavy machines. The simple tools such as cutlass, hoe, spade e.t c. are used mainly by small scale/local farmers.

The heavy machines worked by mechanical power include ploughs, ridgers, cultivator, etc.

6)AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

This is the process or system which assists farmers through educational procedure in improving farm methods and techniques.Methods of disseminating new ideals and techniques to farmers include mass media, individual method and group method.

CONTENT

  • Animal science
  • Fishery
  • Forestry

7) ANIMAL SCIENCE

This is the science which deals with animal husbandry. It embraces the selection, breeding, feeding and management of livestock for profitable production of meat, eggs, wools, hide and skins and other products. When the field study is about wild animals, it is known as Wild Life Science.

8) FISHERY

This is the scientific study of rearing fish which can either be in artificial ponds, cages, and other enclosure to provide food, oil and other useful materials or even pleasure. When the field of study includes rearing of shrimp’s prawns, oysters, crabs, turtles, water plants and other water dwelling animals or plant, it is usually called Aquaculture.  It also involves their preservation, cleaning and marketing. Fishes can be preserved by freezing, smoking, sun drying, salting and canning.

EVALUATION

  1. Define fishery.
  2. What is aquaculture?

9) FORESTRY

Forestry is the branch of agriculture that is concerned with the forest and its resource,Resources of forest include timber, wild animals, minerals etc. Forestry practiced for the production of timber is called, silvicultureExample of forest trees include iroko, obeche, opepe,  mahogany, acasia etc.

10) APICULTURE (BEE KEEPING)

It is the care and management of honeybees to enable them produce plenty of honey and bees wax. The honey and bees wax produced are then collected for human use. A place where bees are reared is called a ‘bee yard or an apiary’. The rearer of bees is called apiarist.

11) HELICULTURE (SNAIL REARING)

Snail farming is the rearing of snails in cages or fenced areas. The fenced areas are called snail pens. The cages or pens contain soils that can hold water. Food foe snails are provided in the form of plants and decaying plant parts.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What is Forestry?
  2. What is Fishery?
  3. List five examples of fish.
  4. List three example of forest trees.
  5. Differentiate between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools by A. YondeoweiBk 1. Chapter 2, pages 8-12

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of the following is an oil crop? A. Cocoa, coffee, kola B. Coconut, pineapple, pear C. Onion, amarathus, cucumber D. Coconut, groundnut, cotton
  2. All the following are careers in Agriculture except A. Horticulture B. Mining C. Crop Farming D. Fish Farming
  3. Career opportunities in Agric means A. farm settlement B. Farm administration C. Opportunities of going to school D. Chances available for school leavers in the field of agriculture.
  4. Which of the following groups are crops of the same family? A. Yam, cocoyam, cassava, potatoes, cabbage B. Rice, maize, millet, guinea corn, barley C. Orange, ginger, pineapple, pawpaw, cashew D. Amarathus, spinach, onion, barley.
  5. Aquatic organisms are the major source of A. starch B. protein C. Fat D. Vitamin.

THEORY              

  1. Write short notes on any two of the following
    • Animal science.
    • Fishery.
    • Forestry.
  2. State five importance of agriculture.

EVALUATION

  1. What is Agricultural Engineering?
  2. Mention two examples of simple tools.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. List five areas of Agriculture.
  2. What is Agricultural Engineering?
  3. What is Agricultural Extension?
  4. What is Horticulture?
  5. List five Agricultural farm tools.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools by A.YondeoweiBk 1 Chapter 2, pages 8-12.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The area of agriculture that deals with the business aspects and development is otherwise known as (a) agricultural economics (b) agriculture finance (c) agriculture business (d) agriculture marketing.
  2. The area of agriculture that concerns the repairs and fabrication of different simple and heavy machine is called (a) agriculture Engineering (b) agriculture repairer (c) agriculture mechanic (d) machine fabricator
  3. The study of composition of the soil is ……………  A. Soil science  B. Crop science C. Animal science D. Medicine
  4. The personnel concerned with the teaching of local farmers the improved modernmethods of agriculture is called ____ (a) Extension Agent (b) Agriculture Teacher (c) Farmers

Teacher (d)Extension Activist.

  • The following are methods of disseminating new ideal to local farmers except ____

(a) phoning (b) mass media (c) individual method (d) group method.

THEORY

  1. State and define any five branches of  Agriculture.
  2. Differentiate between Crop Science and Animal science.