A Clause is a group of words containing one finite verb and a main subject. It is like a sentence when it is capable of standing alone. It could also, however be introduced by such words as who, that, which, when and so forth. It will be incapable of standing alone in this instance. The former is referred to as subordinate or dependent clause.

THE MAIN CLAUSE: This can stand on its own to make a complete sense or sentence. Example;

  • I am going home now.
  • The choir came and ministered

Subordinate clause


  • It is a group of words
  • It always has a finite verb
  • It does not express a complete needs the main clause to make a complete sense or sentence
  • It only forms part of the sentence.


  • As soon as the boy saw the teacher, he took to his heels.
  • Unless he passes the examination, he will not travel abroad.


There are three types of subordinate clauses, namely: noun clause, relative or adjectival clause and adverbial clause.

Noun or Nominal Clauses: this clause behaves like a noun or noun phrase. Therefore, it functions as subject of verbs, object of verb and object of preposition in a sentence. It is introduced by any of such typical words as that,why,whether,how,what and so forth.


Subject of the verb

How Sola passed the examination beets the imagination of her teachers

Functions:Subject of the verb “beats”

Why he refused to put in his letter of resignation is best known to him

Functions:Subject of the verb “is known “

Subject complement


  • The good news is that he passed his ICAN examination
  • The underlined noun clause refers to the good news. It is the same thing as the good news

Object of the verb


The authority awarded what is termed punctuality award.

Functions: Object of the verb “awarded”.

The suspect eventually accepted that he was guilty

Function:The object of the verb “accepted”

Object complement


The authority gave the student what is termed award for excellence.

Function: compliment of the object “student”

The robbers killed the man because he did not give them what they demanded for.

Functions:Compliment of the object “them”

Adverbial clause:It behaves like an adverb, meaning it modifies verbs, adjectives an adverbs. It falls into several categories depending on the introductory word employed.


Time: since, while, when, after, before,

He had arrived since the rain started

Function:It modifies the verb”arrived”

Place:, whenever

The dog hid where the puppies slept

Purpose:That, so that, in order that.

He suffered insult so that he might have peace.

Cause:Because, as, in as much as, that,

Because she was impatient, I hurried home.

Concession:Although, though, even, if,

Although Ade is physically handicapped, he is very hardworking

Condition:if, unless, provided, incase.

I will present a paper, if I pay the registration fee.

Comparison: as, than.

She is more brilliant than I am.


  • Give the grammatical names and functions of the following sentences;
  • I saw him when he was going to church
  • A very expensive Swiss wrist-watch was presented to the beauty queen
  • The landlord whose house was burgled has reported to the police
  • His action resulted into what his father predicted
  • The surgery performed by the doctor was successful.



Publishing a book involves several processes. It is more than collecting a manuscripts from authors, having them printed into books,selling the books and making money out of publishing starts from when the publisher receives the manuscript from the author. The author is the writer or the originator of a publication. Two or more people can jointly write a book such writers are referred to as co-authors. Manuscript which are rough copies of books, may be either handwrittenor type written, and the manuscripts either sent to the publisher directly or through the publisher’ avoid loss of manuscripts, publishers open progress cards for every manuscript they receive. The record of the movement of the manuscript is kept on the progress card. This will enable the publisher to trace manuscript to the latest holder at any given moment.

When the necessary facts about a manuscript have been entered into the progress card, it is sent to the editor who reads through the manuscript and writes a critical appraisal. The critical appraisal includes the commercial possibility of the book and the value of its content. The editor edits the language and removes all the errors in the manuscript. The editor’s report is written and sent to the publisher.

If the manuscript is certified alright, the publisher will arrange for the printing of the book.if it does not have a press of his own, he has to award a contract first to the printer who prints the book and then the book-binder who binds the book. It is the publisher who determines the shape of the book, the quality of printing paper to be used, the style of type, the kind of binding cloth and the hard-board cover or the paperback .the publisher and the printer will have to cast off the content of the book. This involves counting the number of words in the whole manuscript in order to determine the number of pages there are to be in the printed book.

Soon after the commencement of printing works on the book, the printer send the galley proof copies of the book to the publisher who sends a copy to the this early stage, corrections which are mostly typographical can be made. When the page book is passed as correct, the printer runs off the pages of the book for a particular impression. Impression is the first lot or batch of the book that is printed at a time. The earlier number of copies of a book printed out constitutes the first impression. The second batch or lot of the book printed out, mostly at the request of the publisher is the second impression.

A reprint is the same thing as an impression. They both mean a book reprinted without any addition or alteration. The number of impression is a pointer to the rate at which the book is selling. A book usually has an imprint which is the publisher’s or the printer’s mark and place. The imprint is found either on the title-page or at the end of the book.

However, if a book is revised,that is there are additions and changes, the book is said to be published in another edition. An author of a book has a copy right which is the right of ownership. Copyrightprotects the book from book piracy. To pirate a book is to reproduce it without the author’s or the authorized publisher’s permission. The authorcollect royalty which is normally ten percent of the published price from the publisher for his effort.


In the following passage, the numbered gaps indicatemissing words.against each number in the list below,five choices are offered in the columns lettered A to E.for each questions, choose the word that is the most suitable to fill the numbered gap in the passage.

Sometimes it seems that the actual writing of a book is the least arduous parts of a writer’s job, at least in comparison to the task of getting what he has written published. The final 1 is ready,but then there is the problem of preparing different    2   of it to be sent to different publishing  3  . One can use   4 paper to count down on typing, although sometimes the print (except on the   5 ) may become blurred, so some people prefer using 6  , then running them through a  7  machine. Whatever  the writer chooses, he is still a long way from being published. For every hundred8   that reach the publisher, perhaps only one finally gets to pass through the actual 9.  First the writer’s work has to be assessed by a publisher’s   10.He will assessed it for both  11  and 12  qualities, although the two do always go together. After this stage the work may be  13   , sent back for 14, or15 outright. If the first, the writer can rejoice that, yes, at last he is going to be published. All that brain scratching and pen-filling has not gone in vain. All that is left is the matter of 16   to ensure others do not still his ideas; then the payment of   17 . But even if the book becomes a best-seller in his own lifetime,the writer’s real reward is the acknowledgement of 18.




Writing is a form of persuasive communication. There is always a point of view to project and which the writer wants the reader to understand. In other words, we write for a for a reader. The success of writing is therefore best judged by how well the reader understands the message we are trying to send by writing.

SPEECH WRITING: speech writing is, in most cases, in form of end-of-a-year speech, price-giving day speech or other forms of speech-making occasions whereby one is required to deliver a speech. Speech writing demands the skills of writing almost as one speaks.

How to write a good speech

  • content:

the content demands on the topics you are given but your points must be relevant to the topic on which you are writing your speech. In addition make sure that you write on all the aspects of the question to earn a good mark under content.

  • Organization:

In speech writing you should imagine that you have an audience listening to you. Therefore, you are expected to start your speech with the usual vocatives “Chairman, the Principal, Members of staff, Ladies and Gentlemen————–“ your audience depends on the question you are answering; your question will definitely give you an idea who your audience is.

You must arrange your ideas or point in a logical sequence.

  • Expression:

Speech writing demands a good command of language. Use simple sentences because it is important that you should makeyour audience follow your line of thought.

Speech making is meant for oral delivery, therefore you can use variousoratoricaltechniques like rhetorical questions and you can make use of contracted forms of wordslike don’t, doesn’t, didn’t etc. These oratorical techniques will enable youto write as if you were addressing your audiencedirectly. In addressing your audience, you can use words like, you, our, we, you, and I

Don’t use slangs and colloquial expressions.


Write a speech you will give to your fellow prefects in your capacity as the senior prefect on your ideas for the improvement of discipline in the school.

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