Physical and Health Education

Communicable diseases and their prevention

Communicable diseases are diseases that can be transferred from one person to another. A disease is a condition of departure from the normal functioning state of the body.

Agents of Communicable Diseases

  1. Air-borne diseases
  2. Food borne diseases
  3. Insect borne diseases
  4. Contagious and sexually transmitted diseases

Signs of Communicable Diseases

The following are signs of communicable diseases:

  1. Red or watery eye
  2. Skin rash
  3. Cough
  4. Frequent passing of faeces
  5. Vomiting
  6. Running note
  7. Headache
  8. Anaemia
  9. Fever

Prevention of Communicable Diseases

The following are preventive measures against communicable diseases:

  1. Maintain personal hygiene.
  2. Cover food to protect them from flies
  3. Protect the body from insect bites
  4. Drink clean and safe water
  5. Do not use the materials of other people
  6. Do not spit indiscriminately
  7. Go for immunization
  8. Exposition to Health Education
  9. Do not sleep in overcrowded room (good ventilation).
  10. There should be proper disposal of refuse and sewage.
  11. Wash fruits thoroughly before eating
  12. Wash hand before eating food
  13. Wash hands after visiting the toilet to pass feaces
  14. Avoid pre-marital and outside marriage sex

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sexually transmitted disease are;

  1. HIV/AIDS: HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body’s ability to fight infections.
  2. Syphilis: A bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact that starts as a painless sore.
  3. Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted bacterial infection that, if untreated, may cause infertility.
  4. Genital herpes: A common sexually transmitted infection marked by genital pain and sores.
  5. Chlamydia: A common, sexually transmitted infection that may not cause symptoms.
  6. Human papillomavirus infection: An infection that causes warts in various parts of the body, depending on the strain.

Prevention of HIV/AIDS

The following are preventive measures against HIV/AIDS

  1. Abstain from sex until you are married.
  2. Be disciplined in sex issues.
  3. Do not share razor blades, clippers, needles, syringes or other sharp instruments with people.
  4. Be faithful not to have sex outside marriage.
  5. Avoid taking alcoholic drinks and using intoxicating drugs.
  6. Cover open wounds.
  7. Do not share chewing stick, blades, needles and tooth brushes.

Types of Communicable Diseases

The types of communicable diseases include the following:

  1. Typhoid
  2. Diarrhoea
  3. Tuberculosis
  4. Syphilis
  5. Chicken pox
  6. Dysentery
  7. Cholera
  8. Measles
  9. Influenza
  10. Mumps
  11. Common cold


  1. Define diseases
  2. Mention two main types of diseases
  3. List 5 agents of diseases
  4. State 3 signs of communicable diseases
  5. List 3 sexually transmitted diseases
  6. Discuss HIV/AIDS

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