English Notes

Comprehension and Formal letter writing

Topic: Comprehension: A railway Journey

The passage centres on transportation by rail. Transport by rail is best approach in a spirit of adventure and with an uncluttered schedule. This is because the Nigerian railway Corporation is not renowned for getting there on time. The train is usually overcrowded and some passengers even travel on top of the carriages.

Evaluation: Questions, page 141

Topic: Formal Letters

These are letters we write to people in their official positions.

Features of a formal letter

  1. Writer’s Address and Date: This is written at the top right hand corner. The date is written beneath the address.
  2. Receiver’s Address: This is written at the left hand corner beneath the writer’s address.
  3. Salutation: The acceptable salutation is Dear Sir or Dear Madam.
  4. Heading or Topic or Title: This is written below the salutation
  5. Introduction: This should be straight forward and precise
  6. Body of the letter: This should consist of at least three well developed paragraph.
  7. Conclusion: this should be done in a paragraph.
  8. Subscript (Complimentary close): The acceptable closing is ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by a comma.The signature is appended beneath the closing with the full name written below the signature.

Sample Question: Write a letter to the Commissioner of Education, informing him about the plan of your council to engage in the expansion of the only secondary school in your town and howthe council intends to implement its programme of aid to the school.


                                                                                                                Baptist College,


                                                                                                                P.O. Box 30,


                                                                                                                Oyo State,

                                                                                                                14th October, 2019

The Commissioner,

Ministry of Education,


Dear Sir,

Expansion Programme for Baptist College

Body of the Letter

                                                                                                Yours faithfully,


                                                                                                Adeyanjuu Adedayo

Informal Letters: These are the letters we write to people who are very familiar to us.

Features of an informal letter.

  1. Writer’s Address and Date
  2. Salutation
  3. Introduction
  4. Body of the letter
  5. Subscript

Evaluation: Write a letter to your friend who is in another school about your annual inter-house sports which you celebrated recently.

Topic: Nominalization of Infinitives

Nominalization is the changing of a part of speech into a noun by the addition of a suffix

Verbs                                                                                                    Nouns

Advise                                                                                                  advice

Apologise                                                                                            apology

Authorise                                                                                            authority

Choose                                                                                                 Choice

Fail                                                                                                         failure

Fix                                                                                                          fixture

Hate                                                                                                      hatred

Enjoy                                                                                                     enjoyment

Know                                                                                                    knowledge

Live                                                                                                        life

Oppose                                                                                                opposition

Obey                                                                                                     obedience

Secure                                                                                                  security

Rob                                                                                                        robbery

See                                                                                                        sight

Speak                                                                                                    speech

Serve                                                                                                    service

Think                                                                                                     thought

Strike                                                                                                    stroke

Weight                                                                                                 weight

ii. Non-Restrictive Clause: In the non-restrictive, th clause provides additional information to the subject and is marked with commas.


  1. The young lawer, who is 25, gave the closing remark.
  2. The house, which has been renovated, looks very new.
  3. The book, about which so much has been said, is not interesting.
  4. The principal, who I told you about, is a sadist.
  5. My brother, who lives in Abuja,  visited me last week.

Evaluation: Make five sentences each on restrictive and non-restrictive clauses.

Topic: Hints on writing essays in the examination

Every type of writing demands distinctive style and approach. Candidates are expected to be able to write the following kinds of essays; narrative, descriptive expository argumentative.

Hints on Essay Writing

  1. Treat as many ideas in relations to the topics as can be discussed within the time allowed.
  2. Even though the ideas may be old, they should be presented in a new perspective in view of human development, and in an orderly manner.
  3. The language used in writing should be appropriate and clear to the reader.
  4. Due emphasis should be placed on correctness of language.
  5. There should be neither bias nor overzealousness in the writing.
  6. Keep within the time allocated for the essay.

Evaluation: Write an essay on ‘The day I will never forget

Reading Assignment: Vowels

Weekend Assignment: Revision and tests part 2, page 149, Effective English.

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