English Notes

Comprehension: Irrigation

The passage is adapted from Small Scale Irrigation by Peter Stern. The sprinkler method of irrigation is discussed at length.. The most common type of sprinkler used with portable systems is the rotating head sprinler, consisting of a head, with one or two nozzles, which is rotated slowly by the action of the water passing through it, and which waters a roughly circular piece of land around the sprinkler.


Questions, Page 112

Topic: Vocabulary: Technical Words.

The words related to irrigation are equipment, fields, hydraulic, trench, regions, tropical, sub-tropical, e.t.c.


Vocabulary, Page 113

Topic: Sequence of Tenses.

In 1982, PZ’s Managing Director, Basil Sponddeas, who has spend/had spent/spends his entire life working in the company, retired/has retired. He is succeeded/was succeeded/has succeeded by George Loupos.

Where there is a choice of verbs in the above, select the appropriate one.


Practice 1, Page 91.

Topic: Consonant Clusters.

The English Language permits some consonants to follow each other in a sequence without an intervening vowel in a syllable. When two or more consonants come together, they form a consonant cluster. This cluster can appear at the beginning of the syllable or at the end.

In some words, it is not easy to identify consonant clusters by merely looking at the written form of the world. Such words manifest the clusters only when they are pronounce.

The following are examples.

                Word                                               Correct Pronunciation

                  new                                                           /nju:/

                  few                                                                        /fju:/

                  cute                                                           /kju:t/

                  tune                                                           /tju:n/

                  view                                                          /vju:/

                  stew                                                           /stju:/

                  student                                                      /stju:dənt/                   

Clusters of two consonants at the initial position include

                  play                                                           /plei/

                  bright                                                         /brait/

                  drain                                                          /drein/

                  threat                                                         /θret/

                  clan                                                            /klæn/

                  hew                                                           /hju:/

Clusters of two consonants at the final position include

                  Sacked                                                      /sækt/

                  Washed                                                     /wכst/

                  Marks                                                        /ma:ks/

                  Maps                                                         /mæps/

                  Lanes                                                         /leinz/

                  Loaves                                                       /ləuvz/


Write the symbol of the consonants in a cluster in the following of words.

Clean, frog, human, begs, talked, dwell, eighth, thrice, cast, shift.


Figures of Speech.



  1. What are useful hints on answering comprehension questions?
  2. Give useful hints on understanding comprehension passages.

Speech Work

  • Define consonant sounds.
  • What are word stress, emphatic stress, and rhymes.


  • Write an essay on ‘The day I will never forget’


Revision and Tests, Part 1, Page 95, Effective English.

Exercise 2, Question b, Page 82, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.

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