English Exam Lessons

Comprehension: Law Enforcement Agreement

The passage centres on the attempts by the Nigeria Government to curb drug trafficking in the country. Nigeria’s geographical position gives it the unfortunate distinction of being the natural hub for drug trafficking to and from the Americas, to Europe and across Africa. The United State Government signed an executive agreement on procedures for mutual assistance in law enforcement matters in November 1987. Some  success  have been recorded but much still remains to b done.


Questions, Page 64

Topic: Vocabulary Development: Justice Delayed .

Some of the words related to law include investigation, punishment, plaintiff sentence, trial, legal, judge etc.


Vocabulary, Page 64.

Topic: Lexical and Auxiliary Verbs.

A. Lexical Verbs: Lexical (or main) verbs are those that can stand done as the verb element of the sentence.

E.g. Dike did  the work yesterday.

We are students.

John cut down the tree today.

Where the verb element of a sentence consists of more than one verb, the lexical (main) verb always appears last.

E.G. Dike has done the work

We are studying  English

I have read the book.

B. Auxiliary verbs: Auxiliary verbs are those that help the main verbs perform their functions. There are two kinds of auxiliary verbs: Primary and modal. A major difference  between the two kinds is that; while the primary auxiliaries can also be used as lexical verbs, the modal auxiliaries cannot.

1. Primary Auxiliaries: be, do, have.

be  – I am going to school

do – Charles did not attend class.

Have – I have done the work.

ll. Modal Auxiliaries:

can – Joy can go if she likes

could – John could run fast when he was young.

may – Obi may come with us.

might – It might  rain this afternoon.

shall – I shall  attend the party.

will –  He will play for us today.

should – We should  eat the food since it is safe.

would – If I had a car, I would travel often.

must  –  You must tell the truth

ought to – Every student ought to study hard.

use to –  We used  to fly kites when we were young

need – You need to leave now

dare – Nobody dare  insult our leader.


Make five sentences with the following. be, do, have, could, may.

Topic: Speech Work: Consonants

There are twenty –four consonants in speech in English. Three factors are usually considered in the classification of consonants. These are ‘place of articulation’,

‘manner of articulation and ‘state of the glottis? This chart below shows the classification according to these features.

Manner of articulation            State of the Glottis                  Place of Articulation

                                        Voiceless           Voiced

                                                p                      b                      Bilabial           

STOP                                      t                       d                      Alveolar

(PLOSIVE)                             k                      g                      Velar

FRICATIVE                           f                       v                      Labio-dental               

                                                θ                                              Dental

                                                s                       z                      Alveolar

                                                S                                              Palato-Alveolar

                                                h                                              Glottal

AFFRICATE                          ts                     d                      Plato-Alveolar

LATERAL                                                      l                       Alveolar

LIQUID                                                          r                       Alveolar

SEMI-VOWEL                                              w                     Bilabial

                                                                        j                       Palatal

                                                                        m                     Bilabial

NASAL                                                          h                      Alveolar

                                                                        ŋ                      Velar

Examples of words where the consonants occurs.

1.      / p /                     –           pan, nap

2.      / b /                     –           bud, rub

3.      / t /                      –           tea, seat

4.      / d /                     –           dip, hide

5.      /k/                       –           come, pack

6.      / g /                     –           get, rag

7.      / f /                      –           fork, cough

8.      / v /                     –           van, live

9.      / θ  /                    –           think, both

10.    /   /                      –           this, breathe

11.    / s /                     –           sip, place

12.    / z /                     –           zink, has

13.    /s/                        –           ship, fish

14.    /З/                       –           genre, garage

15.    / h/                      –           hat, behave

16.    / ts/                     –           cheap, teach

17.    / d З /                  –           joy, page

18.    / l /                      –           lock, sell

19.    / r/                       –           rag, borrow

20.    / w/                     –           win, rewind

21.    / j/                       –           yes, new

22.    /m/                      –           man, him

23.    / n /                     –           net, rain

24.    / ŋ/                      –           singer, bang


Exercise 1, Question 9 Page 67, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.


Modal Auxiliaries.



Verb Tenses

Fill in the blank spaces with the correct forms of the verbs in the brackets.

  1. Amadi has never……….. late to school. (come)
  2. His mother, together with his sisters,……… the bakery. (work)
  3. He ……….. a lot of reading everyday. (do)
  4. My friend and confidant ………. in Lagos. (live)
  5. Either his brother or his cousins ………… him advice.(give)


Revision and Tests, Part 1 Page 73, Effective English