The passage is an extract from the Novel titled ‘A Good Man in Africa’ by William Boyd. A woman, named Innocence, had been struck dead by thunder. All attempts by Morgan to get Innocence’s body taken to the morgue was in vain. The belief that certain sacrifices need to be carried out on anyone struck down by thunder prevented anyone, including the police, from taking the corpse away. Morgan was surprised that even the “Christians” made reference to tribal protocol.
Questions, Page 49.
Topic: Vocabulary Development: French Words
French is one of the European languages that have developed out of Latin. Some French expressions are used in English.
á la carte: refers to that part of a menu where each dish is listed with its price.
Á la mode: fashionable
Bourgeoisie: the middle class
Chef: senior cook
Communiqué: an official announcement
Déjà vu: seen before
Fiancé: a man who is engaged to be married.
Malaise: an uneasy feeling
Gauche: social clumsy or inept
Précis: a summary
RSVP: stands for repondez s’il vous plait. These letters are placed at the foot of a formal invitation when a reply is needed. They mean ‘please reply’.
Practice 1, Page 52
Topic: Writing: Articles
Articles are expository essays. An expository essay is one that requires you to explain a thing or a process fully. The explanation will necessarily demand writing a great deal about what distinguishes the subject of the essay from all other things.
It may also involve some description.
Sample outline on articles. There have been various articles in your national newspapers discussing the rise in the prices of goods. Write your contribution to the discussion and suggest ways to help curb the trend.
- Introduction; Your observation.
- Explaining the problem.
- First major result
- Second major result
- Conclusion: The need to solve the problem.
Write an article for publication in one of your local newspapers on the good effects of accountability and transparency.
Topic: Figures of Speech.
A figure of speech is any departure from the literal (i.e ordinary) use of a word or phrase. Some of the commonest figures of speech which cut across genres are simile, metaphor, irony, paradox, euphemism, hyperbole, personification, litotes, oxymoron, allegory, alliteration, pun, rhetorical question, etc.
1. Simile: This is a figure of speech in which two things of identical or similar qualities are indirectly compared through the use of ‘like’ or ‘as’.
E.g. Peter is as cunny as a snake.
Jane is like an angel.
2. Metaphor: This is a direct comparison of things without the use of ‘like’ or ‘as’.
E.g. Peter is a snake
Jane is an angel
3. Personification: This is a figure of speech in which the quality of living things is transferred to non-living things.
E.g. The sun smiled at me.
The trees are dancing in the wind.
4. Euphemism: This involves the presentation of an unpleasant thing or experience in a palatable way. In most cases, to remove the pain of sad or bad news.
E.g. The old man has kicked the bucket.
The king has joined his ancestors.
5. Irony: A figure of speech in which the ordinary or literal meaning of the word is more or less the opposite of what the speaker intends.
E.g. What a pretty state of affairs!
He jokingly describes the midget as a ‘very tall’ person.
6. Paradox: A statement which initially appears to be absurd or contradictory but which, on closer examination, contains an important truth.
E.g. Make haste slowly.
Attack is the best form of defence.
7. Pun: A play on words which have a similar sound but different meanings usually for humorous effect.
E.g. The dead drunkard was laid on his bier. (pun on beer/bier)
The minister claims he is a soul administrator (sole/soul)
8. Onomatopoeia: The formation of words in imitation of the actual sound made.
E.g. The hiss of a snake
The splash of water.
Give two examples each on the following: (l) simile (ll) metaphor (lll) irony (lv) personification (v) pun
Lexical and Auxiliary verbs.
1. Write short notes on the following:
- What are vowel sounds?
- List out the twelve pure vowel sounds.
- List out the eight diphthongs sounds.
- With two examples each, write out ten consonant sounds.
Revision and Tests Part 3, Page 61, Effective English.