Social Studies


Corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.

Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries.

Government, or ‘political’, corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.

Forms of corruption

In the private sector, staff in charge of finances may embezzle company’s money.

Corruption is also very common in the award of contracts.

Bribery is another form of corruption.

Advanced free fraud(491)

Causes of corruption



Excessive attachment to material wealth

Breakdown in societal values

Economic situation of a nation


What is corruption?

Briefly explain the various forms of corruption that you know.

What are the causes of corruption?

Briefly talk about the agencies responsible for tackling corruption in Nigeria.


Impact of corruption is very hard on public life. This is more of awkward and defaming condition than being problematic, but it appears that the corruption is ever rising and unstoppable.

Further the people involved in corruption seem to be hiding themselves by blaming others. Even they are proud of themselves as they made more money in short time.

To worsen the condition further, those involved in corruption are able to get better promotions and opportunities. People also have developed an opinion that it is the only way to get their work done. If not, the work will be pending for long or even might not be done.

Effects of corruption on people

  1. Lack of quality in services: In a system with corruption there is no quality of service. To demand quality one might need to pay for it. This is seen in many areas like municipality, electricity, distribution of relief funds etc. If a person has to purchase a like medicine, due to corruption in education then the candidate after completion of his course will not like to provide quality health service if there is not enough remuneration for his service. Further candidates who do not have the ability can also get into the same seat by purchasing it. So though he becomes a medical practitioner, he may not be competent enough.
  1. Lack of proper justice: Corruption in judiciary system, leads to improper justice. And the victims of offense might suffer. A crime may be proved as benefit of doubt due to lack of evidence or even the evidence erased. Due to corruption in the police system, the investigation process goes on for decades. This lets the culprits roam free and even perform more crimes. There are even chances that criminals due to old age due to delayed investigation. So it lead to “Justice delayed is justice denied.”
  1. Chances of Unemployment: This we can see with an example. The private education and training institutes are given permits to start providing education. This permit is given based on the infrastructure and sufficient recruitment of eligible staff. Here there are good chances of corruption. The institute or college managements try to bribe the quality inspectors so as to get permits. Though there are no sufficient eligible staff these institutes get permission by the inspectors leading to unemployment. Instead of 10 faculty a college is run by 5. So, even if well qualified persons wish to get job there, they will not be offered. If there was no corruption by inspectors, then there would be chance for more employment.
  1. Poor Health and hygiene: In countries with more corruption one can notice more health problems among people. There will be no fresh drinking water, proper roads, quality food grains supply, milk adulteration, etc.

These low quality services are all done to save money by the contractors and the officials who are involved. Even the medicine provided in hospitals for the hospitals are of sub-standard quality. So all these can contribute to ill health of common man.

  1. Pollution: Pollution is mostly emitted in the form of water pollution, air pollution and land pollution. This pollution is from vehicles and factories. The governments have a monitor on this pollution by regular check of vehicle emissions and also industrial exhausts.

Corruption in the government department lets the industry people opt to release of untreated and harmful waste into rivers and air. If there is no corruption, there can be fair probes. Then the industry personnel will treat the waste such that it is less toxic and harmless to environment and people in it. So we can mean that corruption is also the main cause of pollution.

  1. Accidents: Sanction of driving license without proper check of driving skills in the driver leads to accidents and death. Due to corruption, there are countries where one can driving license without any tests.
  1. Failure of genuine research: Research by individuals needs government funding. Some of the funding agencies have corrupt officers. These people sanction the funds for research to those investigators who are ready to bribe them. In doing so, they do not sanction the funds to genuine and hardworking investigators. Thus the research and development will be lagging. This seems to be not a problem to the common public. But if we notice the resistance of microbes to drugs, we can know that there were no new compounds discovered in the past few decades for efficient treatment of resistant microbes.

Effects of corruption on Society:

  1. Disregard for officials: People start disregarding the official involved in corruption by talking negatively about him. But when they have work with him or her, they again approach them by a thought that the work is done if some monetary benefits are provided. Disregard towards officials will also build distrust. Even lower grade officer will be disrespectful to higher grade officer. So even he may not obey his orders. There were even incidents where a lower grade police officer kidnapped higher grade officer for not offering him leave when asked.
  1. Lack of respect for rulers: Rulers of the nation like president or prime ministers lose respect among the public. Respect is main criteria in social life. People go for voting during election not only with the desire to improve their living standards by the election winner but also with respect for the leader. If the politicians involve in corruption, people knowing this will lose respect for them and will not like to cast their vote for such politicians.
  1. Lack of faith and trust on the governments: People vote to a ruler based on their faith in him/ her. But if found to be involved in corruption people lose faith in them and may not vote next time.
  1. Aversion for joining the posts linked to corruption: Sincere, honest and hard working people develop aversion to apply for the post though they like to as they believe that they also need to be involved in corruption if they get into post.

Effects of corruption on Economy

  1. Decrease in foreign investment: There are many incident where in foreign investments which were willing to come to India have gone back owing to heavy corruption in the government bodies.
  1. Delay in growth: Due to desire to mint money and other unlawful benefits, the official who need to pass the clearances for projects or industries delay the process. A work which can be done in few day may be done in months time. This leads to delay in investments, starting of industries and also growth. Even if started, company growth hinders as every work linked to officials get delayed due to need to provide bribes or other benefits
  1. Lack of development: Many new industries wiling to get started in particular region change their plans if the region is unsuitable. If there are no proper roads, water and electricity, the companies do not wish to start up there. This hinders the economic progress of that region.
  1. Differences in trade ratio’s: Some countries have inefficient standard control institutes. Or in other word these standard control institutes are corrupt that they can approve low quality products for sale in their country. Hence you can see countries manufacturing cheap products dump them in big markets. These countries can manufacture cheap quality products but cannot dump in countries with strict standard control institutes. They can do so only in countries with chances of corrupt officials in standard control. One best example is China products which can’t be just dumped into Europe and US markets. But can be done in Indian and African markets. So there arises trade deficit that these countries cannot manufacture their own products at cheaper price than those exporting to them. So if corruption is minimized than these countries will have less trade deficits in-terms of exports and imports with other countries and their economies can prosper.

Click here to ask a question and get an answer published in the forum. Read our disclaimer.

Get paid for every topic you create in: Forum!MAKE-MONEY