Physical and Health Education

Disease transmission and prevention

Transmission of Communicable Diseases

The following are modes of transmission of communicable diseases:

  1. Airborne – droplet infection and dust infection
  2. Waterborne – intestinal infection and parasites in animal that lives in water
  3. Contaminated food transmitted by flies, dirty hands or night-soil
  4. Contact or contagious diseases spread by skin contact
  5. Animal bites

Transmission of Non-communicable Diseases

The following are modes of transmission of non-communicable diseases:

  1. Physiological failure of the tissues
  2. Chemical or atomic fallout
  3. Malnutrition, dietary imbalance
  4. Congenital problem or emotional disturbance

Consequences of Contracting Diseases on the Individual, Family and Society

Contracting diseases has some negative consequences on the individual, family and society at large. They include the following:

  1. Disturbance to family and marital functioning
  2. Disruption of profession and personal life
  3. Increase in health care cost
  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  5. Social skill problem
  6. Academic difficulty
  7. Long term negative outcomes such as lower educational and employment

Disease Prevention

Diseases can be prevented through the following:

  1. Sanitation
  2. Education
  3. Immunization
  4. Choice of life partner


  1. How can sanitation prevent diseases?
  2. What are the consequences of contracting diseases on the individual?
  3. List and explain four ways of preventing diseases.

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