Physical and Health Education

First aid and safety education for injuries

What is First-aid?

First- aid is the first and temporary care given to an injured person or a person who is sick, before the arrival of the doctor or before he is taken to the hospital.

What is Safety? Safety can be defined as the freedom from hazards. Freedom from hazards can only be achieved if the hazards are identified and removed.

What is Safety education? Safety education is the acquisition of knowledge and skills for dealing with emergencies resulting from accidents and knowing where to obtain help.

What is an Accident? An accident is unintended and an unforeseen event, usually resulting in person injury or property damage.

Classification of accidents

  • Home accidents/ domestic accidents
  • School accident
  • Transportation accident
  • Work place
  • Vehicle

Home accidents

These are accidents that occur in the home, surrounding and neighborhood. Home accidents are usually minor, but could be fatal in some cases. Most of the accidents from home are in form of cuts, falls, poison, scalds and sprains. Home accidents are common among young children and the aged.

Causes of home accidents

  • Poor lighting
  • Poor ventilation
  • Ignorance or lack of awareness
  • Haste
  • Tiredness
  • Slippery floor
  • Defective house hood utensils
  • Poor home design
  • Congestion/poor property arrangement

Prevention of home accident

  • Discard defective house hold utensils.
  • Good structural design
  • Clean environment
  • Take adequate rest when necessary
  • Avoid being in haste
  • Always maintain proper at home
  • Always keep drugs and other dangerous materials out of reach of children
  • Avoid slippery floor

School accidents

School accidents are accidents that occur within the school compound in area like laboratory, the field, gymnasium, classroom, school farm, canteen, play grounds and halls. They occur mostly to school children and other school workers. School accidents are seldom fatal but may result in serious injury. The accident occurs in form of falls, cuts, burns from corrosive chemicals, sprains, strains, dislocation and fractures.

Causes of school accidents

  • Lack of skill
  • Ignorance
  • Poor ventilation
  • Negligence
  • Carelessness
  • Lack of concentration
  • Improper use of equipment and machines
  • Dilapidated building /damaged facilities
  • Slippery play ground

Prevention of school accidents

  • Good mastery of skills
  • Proper use of machines and equipment
  • Clean environment/safe playground
  • Prompt placement of facilities equipment and machines.
  • Good supervision/accurate instruction
  • Adequate facility and equipment
  • Orderliness in furniture and sitting arrangement
  • Proper arrangements of laboratory with laboratory attendants

Transportation accidents

  • Poor condition of engine
  • Over speeding
  • Lack of concentration
  • Sudden loss of contact
  • Poor weather condition
  • Carelessness/ Haste
  • Lack of road/ route signs
  • Sudden mechanical break down
  • Dangerous over taking

Prevention of road accidents

  • Avoid over confidence
  • Take adequate rest when necessary
  • Adequate enlightenment for drivers
  • Avoid being in a hurry or over speeding
  • The use of safety devices should be encouraged
  • Compliance to traffic rules and regulations
  • Avoiding driving or piloting under the influence of drugs
  • Avoid unnecessary distraction
  • Road or route sings should be appropriately placed
  • Ensure accurate communication system

Safety education

The main aim of safety education includes:

  • The development of appropriate attitudes and awareness that can deal with accidents
  • The acquisition of knowledge and skills for dealing with emergencies
  • Knowing when and how to obtain help
  • The development of safety habits
  • The prevention of preventable accidents

Safety measures

Home safety

Safety living is an example of being comfortable at home. This concept should be  of concern to everybody because of the different factors that can constitute hazards in different homes. The home is no longer secured because of the various accidents that happen every time because of  carelessness and personal factors.It is very important to promote home safety among people at home and inculcate in them the principle of safe living.

Home safety education program must be widely published through;

  • Parents
  • Fraternal organization
  • Religious bodies
  • News papers , TV, radio etc
  • Safety organization

School safety

Since the children are required by law to attend school in Nigeria, it is then imperative for the government and the community to safeguard the children from various accidents in the school. The school has the responsibility to safeguard the students from various accidents in the school. The school has a responsibility to promote safety and well being of the children while in school premises or environment which includes the school building, laboratories and playgrounds.

The considerations that should guild in terms of safety are

  • Adequate classroom
  • Effective ventilation
  • Sufficient toilet facility
  • Adequate and proper lighting
  • Avoidance of overcrowding
  • Adequate supply of safe and drinking water
  • Suitable and attractive furniture
  • Laboratory should be safe for students

Road safety

Creating awareness on the following can control road accidents

  • High way should be made wider
  • Public awareness about drivers education
  • Existence of federal road safety corps
  • Driving test for the issuance of drivers license
  • Intensified enforcement of traffic regulations by the road safety corps and more severe punishments for law breakers.
  • More road signs that are clearly and boldly written should be installed in strategic places


  1. …….. can be defined as the freedom from hazards
    Safety education
    b. Safety
    c. Accident
    d. First aid Treatment
  2. The main aim of safety education is one of the following except
    Knowing when and how to obtain help
    b. The development of safety habits
    c. The prevention of preventable accidents
    d. Formation of blood clot
  3. One of these is not a cause of School Accident
    Good hygiene
    b. Lack of skill
    c. Ignorance
    d. Poor ventilation
  4. Home and safety education should be published through one of the following
    b. Fraternal organization
    c. Religious bodies
    d. All of the above
  5. ….. is the acquisition of knowledge and skills for dealing with emergencies resulting from accidents and knowing where to obtain help.
    Safety education
    b. Safety
    c. Accident
    d. First aid Treatment

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