Terrestrial habitat are environment consisting of ground on earth such as forest, grassland,
uncultivated land and a fellow farmland.
A forest is communities of plant dominated by fall trees that branch at top and provide a
thick canopy. The interior of forest is characterized by high humidity, low light intensity, still
air and damp floor.
Characteristics of Forest
- It is usually found on soil that is not water logged
- It is characterized by high temperature of 27 0 0C
iii. A relative humidity of about 70%
- It has a mean annual rainfall ranging from 2000mm – 4000mm
- The heights and canopies of the trees determines its structure
- The common plant in the forest are epiphytes and woody climbers.
Strata are layers of vegetation present in the rain forest. These layers are as follows:
- Upper layer is made of giant and tall trees of about 40m – 60m forming canopy over the
middle layer. The trees in this layer enjoy the best of sunlight e.g. Mahogany is an example
of giant tree. Animal leaving there are flying birds such as eagles, parrot and vulture.
- Middle layer – This consist of tall trees of about 33m forming a continuous canopy. These
trees form canopy have long slender trunks and rounded crowns. The trees are bound
together by large climbing and creepers. Forest birds such as parrot, owls and other animals
such as bat and monkeys are there.
- Lower layer – It consists of trees of height 10m – 15m. It is dense except for some break in
the canopy dew death of a big tree. Animals living there include monkeys, snakes, lizards,
- Shrub layer – These are plants that are small and fully grown. Their leaves are large with
- Forest Floor – This layer consist of herbs, ferns and fungi. There are also numerous
climber and epiphyte and mobels.
- The climbers consist of plants which are rooted on the ground but need support for their
- Epiphytes – These are more or less short stemmed plants, intolerant of the conditions at
the ground level, so they grow roots on the stems and branches of other plants.
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