Civic Education Notes

Inter-Communal Relationship

A communal society is a type of society in which the population is small and the people share things in common as brothers and sisters. Examples of communal societies are villages, hamlets, camps, etc.


  1. The community is usually small
  2. It is usually homogeneous in nature.
  3. Majority of the people engage in primary activities e.g. farming.
  4. Majority of the people are not educated.
  5. Houses are dispersed and may be separated by farmlands.
  6. Social relationships are personal and intimate
  7. There is a strong sense of communal responsibilities and group solidarity among members of the community.

INTER-COMMUNAL RELATIONSHIP: This is the relationship between people from different communal societies.The relationship between people from different communities is based on economic,social and political activities.


Communal societies are basically agrarian in occupation and in most cases, the community produces the same type of agricultural products.Members of the community work together in clearing bushes and preparing farmland for plantingand harvesting. In many parts of Nigeria, men are assisted by their wives to harvest agricultural product, others in the community may be engaged in some specialized occupations such as pot-making, mat weaving, blacksmithing, hunting  and traditional medicine.


Communal societies encourage inter-communal marriages, worshipping in common ancestral shrines, and belief in a god or goddess. They also work together in digging wells and ponds, maintenance of common markets and clearing of roads. This helps to promote the spirit of solidarity, oneness and healthy community life.


Political activities in communal societies include the grouping of people into different age-grades, selection of leaders, enforcement of local customs, punishment of erring members and assignment of roles. Leaders are periodically chosen and replaced. It should be noted however, the most communal societies practice direct democracy.


  1. Explain how people living in communal societies relate with one another?
  2. Explain economic and political activities in communal society.


1.         Tolerance among members of the communities.

2.         Respect for human rights.

3.         Access to justice whenever the need arises.

4.         Inter-communal marriages.

5.         Engagement in sport activities.

6.         Good governance.


1.         What is communal society?

2.         State three characteristics of communal society.

3.         Explain the activities in a communal society?

4.         State four duties of the police.

5.         What is human right?


Inter-Communal Relationship: Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 113-118.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

  1. A type of society in which majority of the people engage in farming is  A. urban  society B. conurbation   centerC. rural community D. developed community
  2. All are activities in a communal society except A. fishing B. carving C. bankingD. weaving
  3. The homogenous setting of the communal society means that   A. the people are related and familiar with one another  B. the people do not really know one another   C. the people do not have a close relationship with one another   D. the people are far apart.
  4. In communal societies, leaders are  A. elected though electionB. appointed through ballot C. selected by the government D. chosen by the people.
  5. Which of the following does not belong to a communal society? A. Oba B. Emir C. commissioner D. age grade.


  1. List four benefits of inter-communal relationship.
  2. State five duties of the community leaders in a communal society.

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