Manufacturing industry is defined as the industry that is involved in the turning of raw materials into new products by mechanical or chemical process at home or in the factory.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
1. Most Nigeria industries rely on imported skilled labour from foreign countries.
2. Most industries also depend on foreign countries for their raw materials.
3. Industries are concentrated in few locations, especially in urban centres.
4. Most manufacturing industries are mainly light industries.
5. They are labour intensive i.e. require large labour.
6. Their produce is mainly consumed in the local market.
7. They are largely small scale.
CLASSIFICATION OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
Manufacturing industries can be grouped into 3 namely:
A. Light Industries
– They produce relatively light weight goods such as matches, television sets, electric fans, books, etc.
– They employ mainly the services of women.
– They produce final or consumable goods.
B. Consumer Goods Industries
– They turn raw materials into consumable goods.
– They are normally located in cities.
C. Heavy Industries
– They produce heavy or bulky goods.
– They employ the services of mainly males.
– Examples include metallurgical industries, petroleum industries and ship building industries.
Industries can also be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary industries based ontheir functions.
A. Primary Industries
– They are concerned with the extraction of raw materials provided by nature.
– They are also known as extractive industries.
– Examples include mining, fishing, lumbering, farming and livestock production.
B. Secondary Industries
– They are concerned with the turning of raw materials into finishing goods.
– Examples include construction, building, chemical industries, etc.
C. Tertiary Industries
– They are concerned with the rendering of services.
– The service could be direct e.g. trading, banking, teaching, medical, etc
– The service could be indirect e.g. police, custom, soldiers, etc
FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
1. Proximity of source of raw materials.
2. Nearness to market.
3. Nearness to sources of power.
4. Availability of labour.
5. Availability of capital.
6. Adequate transport network.
7. Government policies.
8. Political stability.
REASONS WHY MOST MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES ARE SITED IN URBAN AREAS
1. Large market.
2. Availability of labour.
3. Good transport network.
4. Nearness to seaports and airports.
5. Availability of finance.
6. Presence of infrastructure facilities.
LOCALIZATION OF INDUSTRIES
This refers to the sitting of industries in a particular area i.e. the concentration of industries in one area.
Advantages of concentration of Industries
1. It leads to inter-dependence of industries.
2. It creates employment opportunities.
3. It aids mobility of labour.
4. It leads to the provision of social amenities.
5. It encourages healthy competition among industries.
6. It leads to the development of organized market e.g. cooperative societies.
7. It leads to attraction of subsidiary industries in the area.
8. It leads to inventions and innovations due to competition among industries.
Disadvantages of concentration of Industries
1. It leads to congestion in traffic, industries and housing.
2. It can lead to shortage of amenities.
3 It can escalate crime rate like armed robbery, car snatching, etc
4. It can cause environmental pollution due to the presence of many industries.
5. The area is made the target of attack during war time.
6. It encourages rural-urban migration.
- What is an industry?
- Explain the different types of manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
- State the advantages of concentration of industries.
LOCAL CRAFT (COTTAGE) INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
Local craft or cottage industries are those industries that depend mainly on raw materials obtained from their immediate locality. They use simple tools and their work is of high artistic quality. They include:
1. Leather works e.g. sandals, cushions, handbags, etc. They mostly found in Kano, Bida and Sokoto.
2. Wood carving: This is done in Ikot Ekpene, Uyo, Oyo, Benin city, etc
3. Pottery and glass making: These are done in Ikot Ekpene, Bida, Ilorin and Calabar.
4. Ropes and mat making: These are done in Ikot Ekpene, Warri, and Kano.
5. Brass and silver works: These are done in Bida, Benin and Kano.
6. Textile/cloth weaving: These are done in Akwette, Okene, Kano, and Iseyin.
MODERN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
A. The western industrial zone: Include Lagos, Ibadan, Sango Ota, Abeokuta, Epe, Apapa, Ewekoro, Oshogbo etc.
B. South-East industrial zone: This includes Nkalagu, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Enugu, Aba, Owerri, Calabar, etc.
C. The North-Central industrial zone: This includes Kano, Kaduna, Jos, Zaria, etc.
D. The Mid-West industrial zone: This includes Warri, Benin, Sapele, Ughelli, etc.
General Evaluation Questions:
- Define an industry?
- State the types of industry.
- Which type of industry engages in provision of finance for other industries?
- Explain cottage industry.
- Explain the classification of manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena, Pgs. 277-282.
1. Which of these industries produce biro, slippers, and school wears (a) Heavy industries (b) Primary industries (c) Tertiary industries (d) Light industries.
2. The following are primary industries except (a) nursing (b) fishing (c) lumbering (d) hunting
3. One of the following is not a reason for sitting industries in Nigeria (a) large labour force (b) Nearness to banks (c) Availability of market (d) presence of social amenities
4. The following are characteristic of manufacturing industries except (a) small scale in nature (b) produce mainly exported goods (c) absence of indigenous skilled labour (d) they require large labour force
5. Which of these towns is known for textile making (a) Akwette (b) Bida (c) Lagos (d) Benin city
- State two reasons why most manufacturing industries are sited in cities.
- On a sketch map of Nigeria, show and name:
(i) One industrial zone in the west.
(ii) One industrial zone in the east.