Notes Physical and Health Education



Sewage is the liquid wastes from domestic, industrial and commercial effluents. It is the mixture of waste from human body and used water that is carried out of houses by sewers.

It carries bacteria which can cause diseases such as cholera typhoid, dysentery.

Sewage disposal- is the way and manner of getting rid of liquid wastes


Refuse can be defined as all solid wastes in the house such as pieces of paper, leaves, garbage, ashes, rubbish and dead animals.

It can also be defined as unwanted, discarded, non-liquid materials emanating from various activities of human.

Refuse disposal- is the way and manner of getting rid of solid wastes. Refuse should be properly disposed of to prevent the spread of infections and health hazards in the society.


There are many methods of refuse disposal. These are the followings

  • Open dumps: This is the case in which refuse and garbages are deposited on the land. The dumps served as breeding places for flies, cockroaches, rodents and mosquitoes
  •  Incineration

This is burning of refuse in a controlled cabin. In this case refuse are deposited inside a house like facility and the materials are burnt with oil coal, or gas serving as fuel.

  •  Compositing or decomposition

This method consists of disposing refuse into shallow pit which is covered with soil. It is allowed to decay and later mix with the soil. The product is called  HUMUS SOIL and is used as  manure / fertilizer. 

  • Sanitary landfill-This is known as controlled tipping. It is a big hole dug in the ground where refuse from community are emptied. The refuse is then covered with soil or ashes to prevent flies and rodents from getting access to the refuse inside.
  • Open burning

Methods of sewage disposal

  1. Waster system: This is a modern system where pipe-borne water is available with a septic-tank. It is common in many modern homes
  2. Bucket latrines: Faeces and urine are collected inside the bucket. This method is unhygienic and should be discouraged. Burying faeces is also common with this method
  3. Septic tank latrines: It is a construction of an underground away from the building into which sewage flow through a pipe aided by water
  4. Pit latrines: the sewage falls into a pit or hide on the ground and its usually with a lid. This keeps away flies and cut down odour. They should be built or located away from well and houses.


  1. Explain the meaning of sewage and refuse
  2. Differentiate between sewage disposal and refuse disposal
  3. List  two methods of sewage disposal
  4. Itemize two methods of refuse disposal

Click here to ask a question and get an answer published in the forum. Read our disclaimer.