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English

Nominalization of adjectives and verb

Nominalization is an academic grammar tool which is used to turn verbs and adjectives into nouns.

Example: Exercising is essential for good health in this example, we have turned the verb “exercise” into a noun so that it can serve as the subject of the sentence.

Nominalization function just like nouns: as subjects and objects of verbs and preposition.

Also, in linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g. a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation. The term can also refer specially to the process  of  producing  a noun from another part of speech.

How Nominalization are formed:

Example: The Fiber in apples helps with digestion.

Nominalizations are formed by adding a suffix to the original verb or adjective.

A suffix is a meaningful segment that is added into the end of a word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes can change the part of speech of a word.

Example: The suffix – tion changes the verb digest into a noun: digestion.

More examples are:

ance / ence                        (permanent – permanence)

ing                                          (eat – eating)

ness                                       (healthy – healthiness)

ment                                     (enjoy – enjoyment)

tion                                        (assimilate – assimilation)

Formation of verbs from Adjectives

Adjective                                                                                             Verb

Able                                                                                                       Enable

Abundant                                                                                            Abound

Wide                                                                                                     Widen

Specific                                                                                 Specify

Rich                                                                                                       Enrich

Solid                                                                                                      Consolidation

Popular                                                                                                Popularize

Just                                                                                                        Justify

Flat                                                                                                         Flatten

Pure                                                                                                       Purify

Different                                                                                              Differentiate

Base                                                                                                       Debase

Civil                                                                                                        Civilize

Dark                                                                                                       Darken

Equal                                                                                                     Equalize

TOPIC: CONSONANT SOUNDS /j/ and /ʋ/             /jʋ:/

Consonant sounds are sounds that are produced when there is an obstruction in the air stream. The obstruction can be partial or total. The English consonants according to Roach (2002) are sounds that obstruct the flow of air through the vocal tract.

Consonants could also be described in mainly articulating terms because they usually involve contents of speech organs in their description. These sounds are produced with the air which originates from the lungs called “Pulmonic egressive air” and passes through the vocal tract. These are twenty-four (24) consonant sounds in English language. Each has its mode of articulation.

The consonant sounds are divided into two:  (i) voiced sounds (ii) Voiceless sound

Voiced sounds: these are sounds produced when the vocal cords vibrate in the course of their production, in order words, some English consonants are voiced sounds. There are fifteen (15) voiced sounds in English.

They are: /b/, /d/, /g/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /v/, /w/, /z/, /ʒ/, / j /, /d/, /dʒ/

Voiceless sounds are sounds produced when the vocal cords do not vibrate in the course of the production. Meaning, some English consonant are produced when the vocal cords do not shake while producing them. These sounds are termed “voiceless sound”. There are nine (9) voiceless sounds in English, they include: /t/, /k/, /p/, /f/, /s/, /ts/, /h/, /ʃ/, /ɵ/

/j/ – approximant or semi vowel, palatal. This sounds like vowel /i/ it occurs in words that start with letter “y” as in

ye                           /ji:/

yield                      /ji:ld/

yard                       /ja:d/

year                       /j: (r)/

It can also appear in the pronunciation of words like:

duty       /dju:ti/                 news     /nju:z/                  student /stju:dənt/

knew     /nju:/                    muse     /mju:z/                 pew                       /pju:/

huge      /hju:dʒ/               sue         /sju:/                     unique                  /ju:nisk/

TOPIC: SUMMARY WRITING

Summary writing is primarily concerned with starting so much in very few words by remouing superfluous and expanded details.

Also, summary writing is concerned  with producing a bridged versions of a given text or passage so that all the salient issues are brought out. It also involves writing down a brief and concise account of a long passage.

There are four main things students have to note in order to write a good summary. These are:

  1. Brevity: this demands that the student must be brief and concise in their answers. There is no room for the use of flowering language or any other additional information aside from the main points.
  2. Relevance: thus calls for a candidate’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage. Students are not expected in summary writing to give any fact or point outside the passage, however relevant they think the fact or point is
  3. Proper courage of the passage: this demands that students must read and understand every aspect of the passage.
  4. Clarity: this means that students are expected to put down their answers clearly.

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