Topic: Organs of speech
The organs of speech are parts of the human body which are used for speech production.
The lung serves as the power house from which air flows. When we speak, we breathe normally and as the
stream of air flows out from the lungs through the narrow space of the wind-pipe some sounds are produced.
We produce different speech sounds with the help of the vocal cords, the
velum, hard palate, alveolar ridge, teeth, lips and the tongue as the airstream flows from the lungs.
As the airstream flows from the lungs during the production of speech sounds, a special organ
called the larynx modifies the sounds. When the vocal cords are placed edge to edge, the glottis
becomes narrow and when the airstream flow, the vocal cords vibrate. Then voiced sounds are
produced when the vocal cords are drawn apart airstream flows easily. So, the vocal cords do not
vibrate and voiceless sounds are produced.
All the vowels of English are voiced. A consonant sound may be ‘voiced’ or ‘voicedless’
1. List all the organs of speech.
2. What happens when the vocal cords are placed edge to edge during the production of a sound?
3. What happens when the vocal cords are drawn apart?
Organs of speech
Reference: Oral English for Schools and Colleges. Pages 1, 2, &3
Topic: Parts of speech: Noun (functions)
What is a Noun?
Of all the parts of speech, nouns are perhaps the most important. A noun is a word that identifies a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Here, we’ll take a closer look at what makes a noun a noun, and we’ll provide some noun examples, along with some advice for using nouns in your sentences.
Identifying a Noun
A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. The English word noun has its roots in the Latin word nomen, which means “name.” Every language has words that are nouns. As you read the following explanations, think about some words that might fit into each category.
*.Person– A term for a person, whether proper name, gender, title, or class, is a noun.
*.Animal– A term for an animal, whether proper name, species, gender ,or class is a noun.
*.Place– A term for a place, whether proper name, physical location, or general locale is a noun.
*.Thing– A term for a thing, whether it exists now, will exist, or existed in the past is a noun.
*.Idea– A term for an idea, be it a real, workable idea or a fantasy that might never come to fruition is a noun.
Identifying a noun in a sentence
When we first start to learn the parts of speech, trying to identify different words can seem like a challenge. This process gets easier with practice. Here are some noun examples to help you get started. The nouns in each sentence have been italicized.
* Person –He is the person to see.
* Person –John started to run.
* Person – Plato was an influential Greek philosopher.
* Animal – The dog barked at the cat.
* Animal – Elephants never forget.
* Animal – Sophie is my favorite horse.
* Place – The restaurant is opened.
* Place – Let’s go to the beach.
* Place – Harvard and Yale are two famous universities.
* Thing – Throw the ball.
* Thing – Please close the door and lock it.
*.Idea – Follow the rules.
*.Idea – The theory of relativity is an important concept.
TYPES OF NOUNS
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g.boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g.Steven, Africa, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include dog, building, coffee, tree, rain, beach, tune.
An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions- things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g .truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.
Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g.audience, family, government, team, jury. In American English, most collective nouns are treated as singular, with a singular verb: The whole family was at the table.In British English, the preceding sentence would be correct, but it would also be correct to treat the collective noun as a plural, with a plural verb: The whole family were at the table. A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Mount Everest is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.
Identify the nouns in the following sentences
* Person – Sharon admires her grandfather.
* Place – Look! There’s the Eiffel Tower.
* Thing – The lamp sits on a table next to the sofa.
* Thing –Money doesn’t grow on trees.
* Person – My mother looks a lot like my grandmother, and I look very much like them.
*Idea –Love is a wonderful emotion.
English Grammar for Junior Secondary Schools. Pages 8 – 10
Topic: Comprehension/vocabulary development.
Content: Unit 1: The Family
Titi tells us about herself and her friend Anochie. Titi and her friend live in Ughelli and attend the same Grammar School at Erhiero. They are both in form 1. Titi’s father is a mechanic and her mother works at home.
Anochie’s father is a teacher and his mother is a nurse.
1. Father – a male parent of a child.
2. Mother – a female parent of a child
3. daughter – a person’s female child
4. son – a person’s male child
5. Brother – a boy or man who has the same mother and father as another
6. sister – a girl or woman who has the same mother and father as another person.
Practice 2 page 21
Vocabulary – family relationships
Effective English for J.S.S. 1 Pages 24 and 25
Reference: Effective English for J.S.S 1