A prefix is a word element added to a base or root at the beginning to give another word. Prefixes do not generally change or alter the word-class of the base or root word as suffixes do but they do change the meaning.
Build- base or root word
Re- a prefix
Fair – base or root word
Un- a prefix
Un +educated – uneducated
Dis +qualify – disqualify
Under + develop – under develop
SUFFIXES: A suffix is a word element added to a base or root word at the end to give another word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes frequently alter the word-class and word-function.Suffixeschange words from nouns to adjectives and adjectives to verb.
Ness, nt, and dy can be added to get (a) happiness (b) solvent (d) comedy
EVALUATION: New Oxford English course book 3(sss) page 96 exercise i-x
Oxford English Course For Junior secondary Schools book 3, page 96 exercise2 and 3
Stress means the extra force usually applied when pronouncing a particular word or syllable. In other words, it is refer to a properties of syllables which make them stand out as more noticeable than others.
Stress can also be described as the contrast between different degrees of breath-force given to syllables in English. Stress embraces three clear categories. They are word Stress, Sentence Stress and Emphatic Stree.
Word stress is more or less fixed. Each word possesses strong/weak stresses which is content words in English. These are Nouns,adverbs, Verbs, and Adjectives. It begins strongly at the beginning of the stress and dies down at the end of the syllable. It is often made with stable pitch.
In speech we use words of one, two or more syllables. In any words of more than one syllable, one syllable is stressed and the other syllable normally has a lesser degree of stress. In English, there are three degree of stress:
- Primary/strong stress
- Secondary stress
- Unstressed/weak syllable.
Stress placement is shown;
- By either placing a mark (‘) at the beginning of the stressed syllable; for Example;
‘ contest con’test.
- OR by capitalizing the letters of the stressed syllable; for example:
Primary /strong/stressed syllable.
It is a syllable pronounced with greater or much effort. It is indicated by placing a STROKE (‘) on top before the syllable sound to be stressed but in this work the stressed shall be written in capital letter.
Primary stree on:
1st syllable 2nd syllable 3rd syllable
RUbber supPORT teleVISion
SUBject huMIlity pessiMIStic
inVENT deVOTE reCEDE
A suffix is a word element added to a base or root word at the end to give another word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes frequently alter the word-class and word-function. Suffixes change word from nouns to adjectives and adjectives to adverbs. For example, the adjective severe, by the addition of the suffix –ity ,is changed into a noun severity .The noun editor, by the addition of the suffix -ial, is changed into an adjective editorial. Examples of suffixes an changes in word class and functions are:
- Noun-adjective suffixes
|Suffix -LESS -LY -FUL -LIKE -Y -ISH -ITY -IAL||Meaning of suffix Without Having the qualities of Having…., giving…., Having theQualities of Like…,coveredwith Belonging to, having the character of||Base / root word Child (noun)Care ( noun) Coward (noun) Help (noun) Child ( noun) Cream (noun)Hair (noun) Turk (noun)Fool (noun) Person (noun)Legal (noun) Editor (noun)||New word formed Childless (adj.)Careless(adj.) Cowardly (adj.) Helpful (adj.) Childlike (adj.) Creamy (adj.)Hairy (adj.) Turkish (adj.)Foolish (adj.) Personality (adj.)Legality (adj.) Editorial (adj.)|
- Adjective-noun suffixes
|Suffix -NESS -ITY||Meaning of suffix State, quality Sane (adj.)Senile (adj.)Electric (adj.)||Base/root word Happy (adj.)Sad (adj.)Clever (adj.)||New word formed Happiness (noun)Sadness (noun)Cleverness (noun) Sanity (noun)Senility (noun)Electricity (noun)|
- Adverb suffixes
|Suffix -LY -WISE -WARD (S)||Meaning of suffix||Base/root word Happy (adj.)Strange (adj.)Wistful (adj.) Crab (noun)Clock (noun) Back (adv.)For (adv.)||New word formed Happily (adv.)Strangely (adv.)Wistfully (adv.) Crabwise (adv.)Clockwise (adv.) Backward (adv.)Forward (adv.)|
- Adjective suffixes
|Suffix -ABLE -IBLE -ISH||Meaning of suffix Able, worthy to Can be Some what||Base/root word Read (verb) Force (verb) Young (adj.)Fool (noun)||New word formedReadable (adj.) Forcible (adj.) Youngish (adj.)Foolish (adj.)|
- Verb-noun suffixes
|Suffix -AL -ER, -OR -ANT -MENT -AGE -ATION||Meaning of suffix Action Instrumental oragentive Agentive and instrumental State, action Activity, result of State, action, institution||Base/root word Refuse (verb)Dismiss (verb) Drive (verb)Receive (verb)Act, edit (verb) Inhabit (verb)Disinfect (verb) Amaze (verb) Drain (verb) Explore (verb)Organize (verb)||New word formed Refusal (noun)Dismissal (noun) driver(noun)Receiver(noun)Actor, editor(noun) Inhabitant(noun)Disinfectant(noun) Amazement(noun) Drainage(noun) Exploration(noun) Organization(noun)|