Meaning of Companies
A company is a type of business. The definition of the term varies by country. Some companies, usually larger ones, are organized as corporations. It is often a business organization which makes goods or services in an organized manner and sells them to the public for profit. It may also be a non-profit organization. A company may hire people to be the staff of the company.
The term is also used more broadly for any group who work together, such as the crew of a ship or the cast of a play.
Standardisation is concerned with the establishment and maintenance of uniform measurements of product quality and quantity. This function simplifies buying and selling as well as reducing marketing costs by enabling buyers to specify precisely what they want and suppliers to communicate what they are able and willing to supply with respect to both quantity and quality of the product. Among the most notable advantages of uniform standards, are:
price quotations are more meaningful
the sale of commodities by sample or description becomes possible
small lots of commodities, produced by a large number of small producers, can be assembled into economic loads if these supplies are similar in grade or quality
faced with a range of graded produce the buyer is able to choose the quality of the product he/she is able and willing to purchase.
In almost any production system there are inevitable lags between investing in the necessary raw materials (e.g. machinery, seeds, fertilizers, packaging, flavourings, stocks etc.) and receiving the payment for the sale of produce. During these lag periods, some individual or institution must finance the investment. The question of where the funding of the investment is to come from, at all points between production and consumption, is one that marketing must address. Consider the problem of a food manufacturer who wishes to launch a range of chilled products in a developing country where few retail outlets have the necessary refrigeration equipment. This is a marketing problem. It might be solved by the food manufacturer buying refrigerators and leading these to retailers (or arriving a hire-purchase arrangement with retailers).
In both the production and marketing of produce, the possibility of incurring losses is always present. Physical risks include the destruction or deterioration of the produce through fire, excessive heat or cold, pests, floods, earthquakes etc. Market risks are those of adverse changes in the value of the produce between the processes of production and consumption. A change in consumer tastes can reduce the attractiveness of the product and is, therefore, also a risk. All of these risks are borne by those organisations, companies and individuals.
As for as is possible marketing decisions should be based on sound information. The process of collecting, interpreting, and disseminating information relevant to marketing decisions is known as market intelligence. The role of market intelligence is to reduce the level of risk in decision making. Through market intelligence, the seller finds out what the customer needs and wants. The alternative is to find out through sales, or the lack of them. Marketing research helps establish what products are right for the market, which channels of distribution are most appropriate, how best to promote products and what prices are acceptable to the market. As with other marketing functions, intelligence gathering can be carried out by the seller or another party such as a government agency, the ministry of agriculture and food, or some other specialist organisation. What is important is that it is carried out.
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