Notes Social Studies


Socialization is the process of learning the culture (language, belief, values) etc. of one’s community or society. By learning the societal norms and values, it becomes easy for him to associate and interact meaningfully in the society he lives.

Types of Socialization

Primary Socialization: This is when one is socialized through the help of older persons. This is also known as childhood socialization. It takes place in the child’s family.

Secondary Socialization: Is when a person is old enough to learn by himself.

The Significance of Socialization

1. Socialization helps the new member to know, understand and participate in the culture of his community.

2. It promotes peaceful coexistence and social interaction among people.

3. It prepares the new member to fit into his community by conforming to its way of life.

4. It prepares and teaches individuals in the community, the roles expected of them based on their status.

Processes of Socialization

There are four main processes through which individuals are socialized into their community.

  1. Direct Learning:It is a conscious way of learning whereby one is told what to do and how to do it. It could be formal or informal and is also known as education. An example of formal education is schooling while that of informal is apprenticeship where a person learns a skill under a master through a practical training.
  2. Incidental Learning:In incidental learning, the child learns unconsciously from his parents or age group.
  3. Learning from Models (Imitation):This is copying the way someone behaves, talks, dresses etc. because the person is admired.
  4. Role Learning:Since every person in a society has certain expectations attached to him, a person learns a new role in the society once he assumes such position. For instance, family heads, religious heads etc.

Agents of Socialization

The following are the agents of socialization;

  • The family: this is the primary agent of socialization. Every child is born into a family and to socialize such a child, the socialized adult members of the family will teach the child.
  • Peer-group: through playmates or age mates, the children inculcate some behaviour. People in the same peer group tend to have strong influence on dressing.
  • The school: a child is prepared to be a functional member of the society in the school through constant reward and punishment.
  • Religious Institution: the moral development of individuals is the primary focus of any religious institution where members are taught about love, tolerance, honesty etc.
  • The mass media: these include radio, newspaper, television etc. Peoples (both young and old) awareness increase through the mass media and these affect their behaviors.
  • Voluntary Organization: are organizations that provide free humanitarian services such as Boys Scout, Red Cross, etc.

Effects of Socialization

The effects of socialization on people could either be positive or negative.

Positive Effects of Socialization.

  1. Social role: socialization helps individuals discharge their roles which enhance the development of the community.
  2. Discipline: through socialization, a sense of discipline is inculcated especially through school and voluntaryorganizations.
  3. Communal spirit is developed through socialization.
  4. Respect for one’s culture and others is an effect of socialization.
  5. It ensures the transmission of our culture from one generation to another.
  6. Skills are learnt/developed through socialization.

Negative Effects of Socialisation

  • Immorality is spread through agents of socialization like the television.
  • The infiltration of western culture through the internet has made Nigeria to depend on the values and economy of western world.
  • Negative peer pressure has increased crime rate in the society.


1.   What is socialization?

2.   List agents of socialization and explain (2) two of them.

3. Discuss how the mass media could have negative effect of socialization on people.

4. Why is the family regarded as the primary agent of socialization?


  1. Which of the agents prepares one to be a functional member of the society?
  2. What is socialization ?
  3. List the agents of socialization.


Macmillan Social Studies Book 1 by M.A. Orebanjo.Pgs. 36-38

Solakat  New Syllabus on Social Studies for JSS Basic Nine by A. Oluwasola Oyewole.Pgs. 42 & 43.

Fundamentals .Pages 77-99


  1. Which of the following is not a socializing process? A. direct teaching B. incidental learning     C. role learning D. learning from model
  2. ‘Socialization takes place from cradle to grave’. This means that socialization occurs A. at childhood stage B. during adolescence C. from birth to death D. at adolescent stage
  3. A doctor that becomes a king will learn a new role through A. the priest B. learning from models C. role learning D. education
  4. The process of acquiring languages, values and belief of a society is A. socialization B. education C. development D. modernization
  5. A child learns new attitude and skills through A. imitation B. memorizing C. ignorance D. carelessness
  6. The agent of socialization that lays emphasis on the moral upbringing of the people is called A. mass media    B. secret cult C. religious organization D. family
  7. The primary agent of socialization is the A. family B. peer group C. church D. mosque
  8. Mass media as one of the agents of socialization is responsible for the following except A. entertainment of the masses B. control of people’s movement C. provision of information to people D. education of the citizens
  9. All the following are negative effects of socialization except A. delinquency B. illiteracy C. dishonesty D. education
  10. One of the following is not a voluntary organization A. Boys Scout B. Rotary Club C.nursing D. Red Cross


  1. Define socialization
  2. List the agents of socialization and explain any three.
  3. Mention two positive effects of socialization.

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