English Notes

Summary writing: Agriculture Technical Aid to Africa and Adjectival Clause


  1. Summary writing: Agriculture Technical Aid to Africa p.85
  2. Structure: Adjectival Clause
  3. Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Films and TV

A.    SUMMARY: Agriculture Technical Aid to Africa p.85

Content: Review, Evaluation

The agriculture technical aid scheme is one of the measures designed by African experts to address food security issues in Africa.  Under the scheme, trained Nigerians would be sent to other African countries who require their services in cassava technology. Egyptians could help out in fish production.



Answer the questions, which accompany the passage.


Read about Adjectival phrases in Countdown,page 208-209.

Structure: Adjectival Clause


An adjectival clause performs the functions of an adjective i.e. it qualifies a noun or its equivalents. An adjectival clause begins with a relative pronoun such as who, which, that, whose, where, whom etc. hence it is called a (defining) relative clause as well. This clause is not separated by a comma from the noun it describes. But when the clause is marked off by a comma from the noun it describes, it is not a relative clause.

The man whose car was stolen has reported the case

Relative/ the NP ‘the man’

The boy whom you praised so well has been rewarded.

Relative/Adj. cl. Describing the NP ‘the boy’

I will retire to a city where the standard of living is low.

                              Relative/Adj. cl. Describing ‘a city’

The man I met told me the secret.

      Relative/ the NP ‘the man’

Dayo, who returned from London yesterday has returned

                  Adj. cl. (non-defining) describing ‘Dayo’

Things fall apart, which was written by Chinua Achebe, is a best seller.

                              Adj. cl. Describing ‘Things Fall Apart’


Describe the two types of adjectival clauses with two examples for each.


Adjectival clause on pg 259 of Countdown English.

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Films and TVpg 182 – 183 Effective English

Slanting the news – expressing the news in a biased or prejudiced way so as to mislead the public censor – to approve whatever is published or broadcast before it is made public.

Curtail – restrict

Director – A person who directs the performance of a movie

Producer – a person who has general control especially of the money for a play, film or broadcast, but doesn’t direct actors.

Box-office – office where seats in the theatre or hall are booked and tickets are paid for

Rehearse – to learn and practise something for later performance

Star – a famous or very skilful performer

Audience – the people listening to or watching a performance

Curtain call – call made by the audience to an actor or actress at the end of the play to acknowledge applause.


Find out the meaning of these words: blockbuster, set, dress rehearsal, scoop, breaking news, commercials, viewer,


Write out five sentences containing different adjectival clauses



Use one of the following words (who, whom, that, which, whose, where, when) to fill the blank space in each sentence and underline its adjectival clause.

  1. Omolayo is the student __________ took my pen.
  2. Your brother saw the boy ___________ name you mentioned.
  3. I read the essay __________ Bode wrote
  4. The candidate for ____________ I voted won the election.
  5. The student ____________ won the competition is my friend.
  6. The man ___________ you accused has been arrested.
  7. The girl from ________ you borrowed the book.
  8. This is the place ___________ I kept the stolen money.
  9. I have forgotten the time ___________ she passed out.
  10. The purse in ___________ she keeps her money is missing.


Answer question A no 1 – 10 Effective English

Concluding section unit 10

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