English Exam Lessons

Vowels /I/ & /I:/, Essay writing, Comprehension and Adverbs


  1. Speech Work: Vowels /I/ & /I:/
  2. Essay Writing: Expository: Raising a Total Child
  3. Comprehension: Reading to Identify Sentence Types in a Passage
  4. Structure: Adverbs

Speech Sounds /I/ and /I:/ contrasted

The /I:/vowel sound is the long sound while the /I/ is short. They are contrasted using the following words.

                  /I:/                                                                    /I/

                  eat                                                                   it

                  beat                                                                 bit

                  seat                                                                  sit

                  heel                                                                  hill

                  feel                                                                  fill

                  seen                                                                 sin       

                  leave                                                                live

                  wean                                                                win

                  meal                                                                 mill

                  least                                                                 list


Write out five more examples to contrast these two sounds.


Pg 181 of Countdown English.

Essay Writing: Expository: Raising a Total Child


  • Who a child is (physical, intellectual, emotional, psychological, social)
  • Explain the factors that affect child development (before and after birth)
  • Maternal nutrition and care environmental factors
  • What children should be exposed to and otherwise
  • Discuss how children personality and attitudes are formed
  • Describe the roles of the parents in raising a child
  • Discuss the duties of the school and others.
  • Buttress explanation with examples from the society
  • Explain the effects of poor/negative child upbringing.
  • Emphasise the importance of raising a total child


Write your essay on the outlined topic above.


Pg 19 – 21 of Countdown English

Comprehension: Identifying sentence types in a passage

  1. Simple sentence – one clause (M1)
  2. Complex sentence – one main clause with two or more subordinate clause (M1, S1 or more)
  3. Compound sentence – two main clause joined by a conjunction (M2)
  4. Multiple sentence – three or more main clauses (M3 or more)
  5. Compound – complex sentence – two or more main clause (M2 or moreS1 or more)

On page 214 of your Effective English book 2, write out two examples of each type of sentences.


Do the exercise above


Read pg 214 of Effective English

Structure: Adverbs


An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective and/or another adverb. It could answer the questions when, where, why, how, to what, extent, how often or under what condition an action has taken place. Adverbs are formed by adding ‘-ly’ to adjectives, therefore most words with ‘-ly’ ending are adverbs. Some adverbs are however not easily recognised because they could be adjectives in some context

Functions of Adverbs

  1. Adverbs modifying verbs

(i) Maureen runs fast                          (ii) Tosin walks slowly

The underline adverbs above are modifying their preceding verbs i.e. ‘runs’ in (i) and ‘walks’ in (ii) ……

  • Adverb modifying adjectives

(i) Taiwois very tall.               (ii) Sunny became quite uncomfortable

The underlined adverbs above are modifying adjectives following them i.e. tall in (i) and ‘uncomfortable’ in (ii)

  • Adverb modifying another adverb

(i) Maureen runs extremely fast         (ii) Tosin walks too slowly.

The underline adverbs above are modifying the adjectives following them i.e. ‘fast’ in (i) and ‘slowly’ in (ii).

We have different kinds of adverbs depending on the type of question they answer.

How?              –                       Adverb of manner

When?             –                       Adverb of time

Why?               –                       Adverb of reason

Where?            –                       Adverb of place

How often?     –                       Adverb of frequency

To what extent? –                    Adverb of degree

Under what condition? –         Adverb of condition


Write two sentences expressing each of the functions of adverbs.


Pg. 130 Effective English.


  1. Define adverb and give two examples to explain its functions.
  2. Explain two types of sentence structures with three examples for each.



Choose the appropriate option for each sentence.

  1. He had scarcely arrived from Abuja _________ he travelled again. (than, as, when)
  2. She had barely come in __________ her baby stopped crying. (as, than, when)
  3. She failed because the examination was ____________ difficult for her (too, very, so)
  4. He knows me ___________ well to suspect my intentions (that, much, very, too)
  5. The table is __________ wide to go through the door. (very, so, too, quite).
  6. He’ll marry _________ next year. (sometimes, sometime)
  7. I would _________ like to come to your party but I have a more important engagement today. (rather much, very much, quite much, too much)
  8. He never got it right, ___________ hard he tried. (whenever, whoever, however)


Practice 1 page 183 unit 12