Transport system in animals

Transport system in plant and animal refer to the movement of metabolic materials from various part of the organism where they are produced to the part where they are either used, stored or eliminated.


The primary purpose of the transport system is to transport material through the body of plant and animal

  1. For regulation of body temperature by transporting and distributing heat produced in the body.
  2. It is necessary for every cell of the organism to obtain all the essential materials for its metabolism e.g. Oxygen, water e.t.c.
  3. For regulation of water balance in the body of the animal.
  4. To move hormones both in plant and animal from where they are produced to the area where they are needed.
  5. Useful substances that can stores are transported to their storage organ or tissue.
  6. For the removal and disposal of waste product of metabolism such as carbon (iv) oxide, water, urea from body.
  7. Regions of active cell division need substances to enable them build new protoplasm for the purpose of forming new cell.
  8. Substances required by reproductive cell for development are moved to them by transport system.


Materials for transportation in animal include water, gases, digested

food and other nutrients and various secretion such as enzyme, hormone,

excretory product and excess material for elimination and storage.

Materials for transportation in plant. They include excretory product,

Water, oxygen, nitrogenous waste product/latex, amino acid, glucose,

Lipids, auxin or hormone and materials.


CYTOPLASM:- Cytoplasm is used as medium for transportation in lower

Unicellular organisms such as amoeba and paramecium. Materials such as

Glucose, amino acid, oxygen, water, and carbon (iv) oxide are transmitted

From one part of the cell to another through the cytoplasm.

BLOOD:- The blood in its fluid state is able to move large materials over the

Entire body through the blood vessels such as arteries, vein and capillaries

From where they are produced.

LYMPH:- Lymph is a fluid similar in composition to tissue fluid although it

Contains extra lymphocyte, there is no red cell present. They return fluid to

the main vein through opening on the subclavian vein through the neck.

Examples of lymph vessels is the lacteal which transport fatty acid and



The transport system in man and most other vertebrates comprises of:

  1. A circulatory fluid (Blood and lymph).
  2. A pumping organ (Heart).
  3. A system of closed vessels (Arteries, vein and capillaries).

Blood is a fluid tissue made up of about 55% fluid called PLASMA and 45%



The plasma is the fluid portion of the blood which is amber or straw in

colored made up of about 90% water and  10% dissolved substances. The

substances  dissolve in the plasma includes the followings.

  1. Mineral salt such as bicarbonate, phosphate, chlorine sulphate, sodium, calcium and potassium
  2. Food substance such as glucose, fat and amino acid
  3. Blood proteins such as Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen Prothrombin
  4. It also contains excretory substance mainly urea
  5. It contains hormones
  6. It contains antibodies

              Function of the plasma

  1. It helps to transport the dissolved substances present in it such as digested food, hormones, antibodies e t c


Lymph is a colored liquid association with lymphatic system. It is a fluid

similar to tissue fluid. They return fluid to the main vein below the neck.

Lymph move through the vessel called located. Some swellings do exist in

group long nodes where lymph passes to be made pure before entering

into the blood stream.

               Function of lymph

  1. Body defense: the lymph nodes produce white blood cells to engulf disease causing micro organisms by phagocyte
  2. It removes foreign bodies from the cell
  3. It produces white blood cell help to fight pathogenesis organisms invading the body
  4. The lymph gland filters bacteria from the body fluid thereby stopping the spread of such infection
  5. The lacteal which is connected to the lymphatic system absorb fatty acid and glycerol for transportation

                The  second portion of the blood is solid which are called blood cell or blood corpuscle

  1. Red blood cell or erythrocyte

-The red blood cells are small round or disk- like and concave In shape

-They have no nucleus or they are not nucleated

-They have short life span of 4 month before being destroyed by the liver

-They are produced by the bone marrow

-It contains red pigment called hemoglobin


The red blood cells help to transport oxygen round the entire body when the hemoglobin combines with oxygen to form oxy-hemoglobin.


They are irregular or amoeboid in shape.

They are large, colorless and contain nucleus.

They are larger than red blood cells in diameter and fewer in number.

They are produced in the red bone narrow, lymph nodes or spleen.

They have a longer life span than the RBS.

There are two types of white blood cells:

  1. Phagocytes: Which destroy bacteria by the process of ingestion called ENGULEMENT OR PHAGOCYTOSIS
  2. Lymphocytes: They destroy microbes by producing anti- bodies which stick to the surface of the germs and kill them.


The white blood cells help to defend the body against disease by ingesting bacteria and viruses.


They are tiny irregular cell fragments without nucleus

They are produced in the red bone marrow.


The platelets help in blood clothing.


  1. The blood help to transport oxygen in form of oxy-hemoglobin round the body.
  2. The blood help to regulate body temperature by distribution the heat produced in the liver and muscles through out the body.
  3. The blood helps to transport digested food.
  4. The blood helps to transport excretory product from where they are produced to where they will be evacuated or eliminated.
  5. The plasma content of the body helps to transport hormone.
  6. The white blood cells defend the body against infection from microbes or pathogens.
  7. The lymph help the body to produce anti-bodies which confer immunity on the body of human being.
  8. The platelets in the blood help to initiate the process of blood clotting when injury is sustained.
  9. The blood transport water to every part of the body.

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