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Physical and Health Education

Types of Field events

Field events are events that require jumping and throwing on the field except games. This events can be grouped into the two:

  • The jumps
  • The throws

The throws:  Throws are all events that involve the throwing of some implement for distance. These implements are called missiles. Examples of athletic missiles are :

  • Shot put
  • Discus
  • The hammer
  • The javelin

The missiles are thrown or put within a specific circle and must land within a demarcated landing sector to make a good throw. A competitor is allowed three throws and the best is used to place him.

The Jumps

These are events that involve jumping for height over a raised object or jumping for distance from a marked spot on a flat surface into a demarcated pit. There are two types of jumps;

  • The vertical jumps are jumps for height
  • Horizontal jumps are jumps for distance
Vertical jumps Horizontal jumps
·         High jump·         Pole vault  ·         Long jump·         Triple jump

Division of field events                Examples events

Jumps/ jumping events               Triple jump / hop

Step-jump

Long-jump

High jump

Triple jump

Throws/throwing events

Examples of events:

Javelin

Shot put

Discus

Hammer

 *the run way and landing pit

The ways of starting races

There are two popular ways of starting races. There are:

  • The standing start
  • The crouch start

The standing start

The standing starts are used to start middle long distant races.

Example of middle and long distant races are :

  • 800m;
  • 1500m:
  • 3000m;
  • 5000m;
  • 10000m;
  • Marathons

Methods

  • Competitions are placed on the assembly line 3m behind the starting line.
  • Runners are moved forward to stand behind beyond a curved starting line on the track.
  • Runners bend forward a little, right or left leg leading.
  • Right or left arm slightly forward
  • When competitors are still/ motionless
  • The command of go, clap or shot of gun is given, for the runners to takeoff.

The assembly line

  • The line is situated 3m behind the starting line
  • It is the line where the marksman places the competitors before moving the starting line.

The crouch start

The crouch start is used to start races such as 100m, 200m, 400m etc.

There are three methods of crouch start

  • The bunch or the bullet start
  • The medium start
  • The elongated start

Rules of the crouch start

  • Competitors hands , feet and knee must remain behind the scratch line until the race starts
  • Competitors must remain motionless until the command go
  • The relay baton must not touch the ground beyond the scratch line at the beginning of the race
  • Competitors must not have two false starts

Field Events

General Rules

  • In all field events besides the high jump and pole vault:
  • The best distance out of all attempts will be counted.
  • With eight or more competitors, each athlete shall be allowed three trials. The top eight finishers (or nine if the track has enough lanes) will be allowed three additional trials.
  • If there are eight or fewer athletes (or nine if the track has enough lanes) all will be allowed six trials. In non-championship competitions and at the judgment of the games committee, the number of trials may be reduced to four.
  • All throws and jumps must be measured immediately after each attempt.
  • Distances in field events will be measured in meters. If the distance measured is not a whole centimeter, the number will be recorded to the nearest 0.01m below the distance.

High Jump

  • The Games Committee will establish the qualifying height standard at the meet.
  • The athlete will get three attempts to make the height.
  • Once the athlete has achieved the qualifying standard, he will not jump that height again and must wait for the bar to be raised.
  • If an athlete misses all three attempts at the height, he will not continue in the event.
  • The posts cannot be moved during the competition unless the referee says the takeoff or landing pit is unsuitable.
  • The athlete must take off from one foot.
  • Ties will be broken in favor of the athlete with the fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurs. Further ties will be broken by the lowest number of total misses throughout the competition.
  • If a tie remains after applying the above tiebreakers, and it concerns the winner of the competition, the stalemate will be broken by a jump off. The jump off height begins at the last clearance of the tied athletes. This height is raised if both athletes clear, and lowered if both miss. This shall continue until one athlete clears and the other does not.

Pole Vault

  • The Games Committee will establish the qualifying height standard at the meet.
  • The athlete will get three attempts to make the height.
  • Once the athlete has achieved the qualifying standard, he will not jump that height again and must wait for the bar to be raised.
  • If an athlete misses all three attempts at the height, he will not continue in the event.
  • For a better grip, athletes are allowed to use an adhesive substance like resin or tape hands. Gloves are not allowed.
  • After the release of the pole, no one, including the athlete, is allowed to touch the pole unless it is falling away from the bar or uprights.
  • If the pole breaks during an attempt, that run will not be counted as an attempt or a failure. The athlete will be awarded a new trial.
  • Ties will be broken in favor of the athlete with the fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurs. Further ties will be broken by the lowest number of total misses throughout the competition.
  • If a tie remains after applying the above tiebreakers, and it concerns the winner of the competition, the stalemate will be broken by a jump off. The jump off height begins at the last clearance of the tied athletes. This height is raised if both athletes clear, and lowered if both miss. This shall continue until one athlete clears and the other does not.

Long Jump

  • The length of the run is unlimited.
  • The takeoff must occur on or before the board.
  • The jump is measured from the takeoff line to the nearest break in the landing area made by any part of the body.

Throwing Events

  • Except for in the javelin, the throw must start from a stationary position inside the circle.
  • Except in the javelin, the athlete is allowed to touch the inside of the board or stop board.
  • Fouls occur when an athlete:
  • Does not start from a stationary position within the circle.
  • Touches the top of the iron board, stop board, or painted circle.
  • Touches anywhere outside of the circle.
  • Improperly releases the implement.
  • Leaves the circle improperly or before the implement has landed.
  • In the javelin throw, the athlete must come to a stop before a line marking the end of the runway, regardless of where the athlete releases the implement.
  • An athlete cannot tape individual fingers or multiple fingers together.
  • Tape on the wrist alone is allowed and must be shown to the chief judge before the event starts.
  • Gloves are only allowed to protect the hands during the hammer throw.
  • All hammer and discus throws must be conducted inside an enclosure/cage to ensure the safety of the spectators, officials, and athletes.
  • Measurements & Weights
  • All measurements must be read by the field judges.
  • All implements used in the field shall be weighed prior to the event on a governmentally approved scale.

Athletic Equipment/ facility

The field – The field should be level and large enough for field events. The grass can be natural or synthetic.

The track – The track can be located in-door or out-door

The costumes

The wears include;

  • The short
  • The singlet
  • The vest
  • The track suits
  • The socks
  • The hose
  • The face towel
  • The score sheet
  • The stop watch
  • The score boards
  • The pegs
  • The starting gun
  • The hurdle stand
  • The victory stand
  • The measuring tape
  • The rake
  • The clapper
  • The draw cards
  • The bell
  • The pencils/ball pens

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