The origin of this concept ‘Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s policy’, could be traced to the administration of the first republic in Nigeria (1960-1966) headed by the Prime Minister, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. According to him,’ we belong to Africa and Africa must take the first attention in our foreign relations’. By Africa being the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy, it means that Africa should be given a place of pride in Nigeria’s foreign policy formulation. A significant milestone was reached in the conceptualization of the nation’s foreign policy when Africa was officially declared as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy by the regime of Murtala/Obasanjo.
The following are the principles of the concept ‘Africa the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy’.
- Sovereignty and equality of all African states.
- Total eradication of racial discrimination and colonialism in Africa.
- To oppose aggression, support the demand for the restoration of fundamental human rights.
- Promoting friendly association among independent African states.
- Respect for and non- interference in the internal affairs of other African states
- Mention 4 principles of the concept ‘Africa the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
- Trace the origin of Africa being the center piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF AFRICA AS THE CENTRE PIECE OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
- Size and Population: Nigeria made Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy, because it recognized the fact that by virtue of her size, population and wealth, she has a historical mission in Africa.
- Decolonization of African States: Nigeria declared Africa as the centre piece of her foreign policy because she realized that her independence will be meaningless if it does not lead to the independence of other African States. This is why decolonization is the main objective of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
- Friendly Association: By making Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy, Nigeria hoped to promote friendly relations, to bring Africa countries together so that they can speak with one voice in international organizations such as United Nations, Common Wealth and so on.
- Assistance: Nigeria made Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy so as to assist other African countries and foster understanding among them
- Leadership: Nigeria is looked upon for leadership in Africa and to realize such expectation she made Africa the center piece of her foreign policy.
- Charity Begins at Home: Nigeria being part of Africa, decided to start her foreign policy making at home by making Africa the center piece of her foreign policy and to claim their first attention in their external relations.
HOW NIGERIA HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT AFRICA IS THE CENTRE PIECE OF HER FOREIGN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION
- Anti-racism and Anti-colonialism: Nigeria has shown that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy by ensuring total eradication of colonialism in any part of Africa. For example, the support for the M.P.L.A, this led to the liberation of Angola. Shagari donated 10Million naira to Zimbabwe for her independence celebration in 1980.
- Support of O.A.U: Successive administration in Nigeria has supported the Organization of Africa Unity politically, financially and in the areas of diplomacy. Nigeria believes that O.A.U is the best.
- Nigeria has demonstrated that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy formulation by establishing friendly relations with all African states.
- Assistance to Sister African States: To show that Africa is truly the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy formulation and also for the spirit of brotherhood, Nigeria has provided technical aid and expertise to sister African States.
- Resolution of Conflicts: Nigeria is committed to peaceful resolution of political conflicts and Inter- state disputes. Nigeria took active role in the settlement of political crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone through the formation of ECOWAS.
- Encouragement of Democracy: In the bid of demonstrating her interest in Africa, Nigeria encourages democracy in all parts of Africa.
- Economic Co-operation: Nigeria is also involved in the promotion of economic cooperation. The establishment of ECOWAS in 1975 and African Economic Community are examples.
- Sports: Promotion of intra-Africa sports such as hosting important sporting events e.g All Africa games, Africa Nations Cup and so on.
- Cultural Assistance: Nigeria has also promoted cultural ties amongst Africa States e.g FESTAC
- Promotion of Unity: Nigeria has also demonstrated that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy by promoting unity and solidarity, especially at the international community.
Give 3 ways through which Nigeria demonstrate that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy formulation.
WAYS BY WHICH NIGERIA MAINTAIN FRIENDLY RELATIONS AMONG AFRICAN STATES
- Establishment of Bilateral economic/political relationship e.g Nigeria and Togo
- Promotion of Multi-Lateral economic/political relationship e.g Chad Basin Commission and Niger Basin Commission.
- Active participation in economic union e.g ECOWAS, Africa Petroleum Producers Association (APPA), Africa Economic Community (AEC), Africa Development Bank (A.D.B.)
- Grants and Aids: Sending of relief materials to victims of political instability or natural disaster. This is done through the Technical Aid Corps Scheme.
- Nigeria has also maintained friendly relations with other African countries through the initiation of peaceful settlement of crisis e.g Congo, Chad, Liberia, Zimbabwe and so on.
- Peaceful resolution of conflict with her neighbor e.g Nigeria and Chad, Nigeria and Cameroon over Bakassi Peninsula.
- Participation in peacekeeping operation e.g Congo, Chad, Liberia and so on.
- Active participation in cultural and sporting activities e.g African games, FESTAC 1977
- Active support for liberation movement in Africa e.g MPLA, SWAPO, A.N.C and so on.
State 5 ways by which Nigeria maintain friendly relations with other African countries
- Highlight the features of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
- State the benefits of interactions among nations.
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 229-231
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 208-209
- A.D.B stands for (a) African Development Bank (b) Advance Development Board (c) Alliance for Democracy Board
- FESTAC 1977, was held in (a) Ghana (b) Cameroon (c) Nigeria
- The policy of indignant was practiced in colonies controlled by (a) Britain (b) France (c) Portugal
- A public corporation is financed with (a) tax payers money (b) private fund (c) donations from philanthropist
- Which regime launched a crusade against the dumping toxic and radio-active wastes in the continent? (a) Obasanjo (b) Buhari (c) Babangida
- How has Nigeria contributed to liberation movement?
- Examine Nigeria’s foreign policy under the Abdulsalam Abubakar regime
Explain 4 reasons for the adoption of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
- Explain the origin of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy
- Explain the term ‘decolonization’
Africa as the Center Piece of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 206-207
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 229-231
- The concept of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy originated in the (a) second republic (b) first republic (c) third republic
- Who was the military President of Nigeria between 1983 -1985? (a) Buhari (b) Obasanjo (c) Shagari
- The origin of Africa as the center piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy can be traced to —- administration (a) Murtala Mohammed (b) Tafawa Balewa (c) Buhari
- All the following were the principles of the concept Africa the Center Piece of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy except (a) promotion of colonialism (b) decolonization (c) sovereignty and equality of all Africa States.
- The concept of Africa as the center piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy was officially declared in _____ regime (a) Buhari (b) Murtala/Obasanjo (c) Babangida
- Explain the origin of the concept of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy
- Mention 4 main principles of the concept.
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