Notes Social Studies

Agents and Effects of Socialization

: Agents of Socialization:

There are many agents of socialization through which the individuals are socialized into the community. They are:

  1. The family and home
  2. Peer group
  3. The school or educational institutions
  4. Religious organizations
  5. Mass media
  6. Age group
  7. The community
  8. Voluntary organizations

1. The Family: This is the child’s first experience of the is the primary agent of socialization; since we all know that every child is born into a family. The socialized adult members of the family teach the child the language, basic values such as how to speak to elders etc.

2. Peer Group:  As a child grows up, he attends school and plays with his age group. These playmates or peer groups have their own rules and regulations which members must A child learns how to behave in a group.

3. The School:  The process of socialization which began at home continues at school. At school, the child is given an all-round education in physical development(psychomotor),attitudinal development(affective)and intellectual development(cognitive).                                                         

4.  Religious Institution: Through religious institution, the members are taught desirable values such as love, faithfulness, honesty. etc.

5. The Mass Media: This include the radio, television, newspapers ,magazine, .etc. .All these increase the awareness of children and adults about what is happening around them and all over the world.

6. Age Group: In any traditional society, age group is the most important agency of socialization.

7. The Community: The community defines the acceptable ways by which members should behave. It praises and honors those who obey its rules and regulations while those who disobeyed are disgraced and punished.

8. Voluntary Organization: These include Red Cross, boy brigade, and rotary club. Etc. They impact certain skills and values on its members.


  1. Explain agents of socialization
  2. List five agents of socialization.

Sub-Topic 2: Effects of Socialization

The quality of each agent of socialization such as family, peer group, the school etc, largely determines the effects of socialization on the people. It may be of negative or positive effects.

Positive Effects or Importance of Socialization:

  1. It enables the individual to play their roles in the society.
  2. It inculcates a sense of discipline on individual in the society.
  3. It inculcates in individual a sense of moral responsibility.
  4. It develops a communal spirit in individual
  5. It enables individual to learn and appreciate his culture and other cultures.
  6. It helps us to learn from one another.
  7. It ensures the transmission of our culture from one generation to another.

Negative Effects or Disadvantages of Socialization:

Displaying of negative values by the mass media has made some individual become morally irresponsible.

  1. Negative peer pressure has increased crime rate in the society.
  2. Acculturation through over-dependent on western culture
  3. Infiltration of negative influences such as pornography through the internet.
  4. A morally backward community tends to produce immoral citizen.


        1.   List five positive effects of socialization.

        2.   Mention at least three negative effects of socialization.

Reading Assignment:

Read chapter 3 of Social Studies for Junior Secondary School by A, Oluwasola Oyewole Pages 43-46

Weekend Assignment:

Objectives questions:

  1. The ways a persons is socialized into the community are called_________

(a)Agents of socialization ( b). social environment ( c). family life.(d) religious activities

  • The primary agent of socialization is called _________

(a)Mass media( b). family( c). school.(d)society

  • Negative peer pressure has increased crime rate in the society. TRUE OR FALSE.
  • __________ inculcates a sense of moral responsibility.

(a)Responsibility( b). socialization( c). none of the above.(d)relationship

  • Examples of voluntary organizations are the folowingsexcept:

(a)Red cross( b). Boys brigade( c). Newspapers.(d) rotary club.

Theory questions:

  1. Mention five importance of socialization
  2. List 4 disadvantages of socialization
  3. Name all the agents of socialization that you have been taught and explain 5 of them.

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