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Notes Social Studies

Culture

CONTENT:1. Meaning of culture

2. Components of culture-material and non-material culture

Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of culture

Culture is the total way of life of a group of people that distinguishes them from others. It includes people’s beliefs,  their works of art and craft, the language they speak, the tools they make, their ways of dressing, the technology they develop and the various institutions they set up to achieve societal goals.

Culture is not static, but dynamic. In other words, it does not remain the same forever but changes from time to time. It is a continuous process. It is transmitted from one generation to another. People learn their culture as they perform new roles as pupils or students in a school, a father at home or as a president of a country.

Sub-topic 2

Components of Culture:

There are two components or aspects of culture. They are:

  1. Material Aspect of Culture: This consists mainly of those things that are made by a society in order to satisfy the needs of its people. Examples are houses for shelter and protection; the tools for agriculture; the weapons for hunting and protection; the cloth and clothes made to suit the conditions of the environment; and the work of art and craft.
  2. Non-Material Aspect of Culture: This aspect of culture consists of those things we cannot see like religion, music, language, morals, values, folklores, literature, dancing styles, technology, etc.

Evaluation:

  1. What is culture?
  2. List two components of culture.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT:Read Solakat new syllabus on social studies for junior secondary schools.page 47.by A.Oluwasola Oyewole

Features of Culture:

Some ways of looking at culture include:

  1. Language: This is one of the most important ways of identifying a group of people. It is a means of transmitting our culture from one generation to another. There are over 250 indigenous languages in Nigeria. Proverbs are an important aspect of speech in Nigeria.
  2. Religion: This is an important aspect of culture. Each cultural group has its own traditional way of relating with the supernatural before the advent of Christianity and Islam.
  3. Mode of Dressing: The way a group of people dress is another feature of culture. For example, Hausa-Fulanis wrap their heads with a piece of cloth; wear ‘danshiki’ while their women often wear clothes that cover all parts of their bodies.
  4. Legends: the belief and story of each ethnic group about the origin of man and the world is another feature of culture.
  5. Folklores: These are stories about man and animals such as tortoise and elephant. It serves as a means of entertainment and a form of moral education.
  6. Arts and crafts: Each cultural group has its unique art and craft in form of carvings, metal works, painting, sculptures, wood work, etc. arts and Crafts are products of our physical environment.
  7. Games and Entertainment: Each cultural group has its own game such as ‘Ayo and Okoto’ in Yorubaland. Entertainment is in form of singing. The Yorubas play musical instrument such as ‘gangan’, ‘bata’ and ‘dundun’ while ‘shantu’ and ‘samban’ sets of drums are popular among the Hausa-Fulanis.
  8. Food and Drinks: In the Nigeria traditional societies, only solid food is recognized as real food while liquid is regarded as mere refreshment. Palm wine is popular among the Yorubas and the Igbos. ‘Burukutu’ and ‘sekete’ are popular in Hausaland. Pounded yam and yam flour are common solid food in Yorubaland while ‘Tuwo’ and ‘Danwake’ are popular among Hausa-Fulanis.
  9. Skills and Tools (Technology): Before the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria, there were small industries made up of small workshops. Making of ivory and brass wares were the preoccupation of the Binis. The Ijaws and the Itsekiris were noted for salt-making while the Akoko-Edos and the Iseyins produced clothes, etc.

Evaluation:

  1. List five features of culture.
  2. Explain the listed features of culture.

Reading Assignment:  Read Solakat Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools, Basic 7 by oyewole, A. O. Theme 4, Chapter 8, Unit 8.4, page 48-50

Weekend Assignment:

Objective questions:

  1.  There are over _________ indigenous languages in Nigeria                (a)   100      ( b).   250    (c) 500 (d)200
  2. ‘Tuwo’ and ‘Danwake’ are popular among __________(a)   Hausa-Fulanis( b).   Yorubas                (c).   Igbos (d)Edo
  3. The ________ play musical instrument such as ‘gangan’, ‘bata’ and ‘dundun’    ( a).   Igbos (b).   Hausas         (c).   Yorubas .(d)Benin
  4. Stories about man and animals such as tortoise and elephant are called  (a).   folklores      (b).   fictions         (c).   factions (d) culture
  5. The following are features of culture except          (a).   rigidity (b).   language              ( c).   religion  (d) administration

Theory questions:

  1. State five features of culture.
  2. Write short notes on any two of the stated features.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

The following are some of the characteristics of culture:

  1. Culture defines a group of people. It defers from place to place.
  2. Culture is dynamic, flexible and changes with time as technology changes and as people come in contact with other cultures.
  3. It is a collective experience of a community or a group of people. It is not restricted to a person.
  4. It is a continuous process that is passed from one generation to another. There can be no people without culture. It is an enduring characteristic of human society.
  5. An individual learns the culture of his society through the agents of socialization such as family, the school, peer group, the community, mass media, etc.
  6. No culture is bad or inferior. Each group has its own definite culture as a result of its environment. This is called cultural relativity.
  7. Culture is neither inborn nor a biological feature. It is created by a community in order to ensure harmonious and progressive living of its members.

Evaluation:

Mention five characteristics of culture

Reading Assignment:  Read Solakat Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools by Oyewole, A. O. Theme 4, chapter 8, Units 8.1-8.3, pages 47 & 48.

Weekend Assignment:

Objective questions:

  1. The total way of life of a group of people is ____________   (a)environment   ( b).   culture        (c).   socialization  (d).environment
  2. Culture of any group of people is _____       (a). dynamic (b).   static   (c).   dead  ( d).natural
  3. There are three aspects of culture     ( a).   True   ( b).   False    
  4. The following is an example of material culture(a) morals       (b).  music     (c).  hoes  ( d).energy
  5. Culture defines a group of ________   (a).  animals          (b).  people     (c).  religion ( d).christian

Theory questions:

  1. What is culture?
  2. Give 4 examples each of material and non-material aspects of culture.

Sub-topic 2.

Cultural Similarities Among Nigerians:

There are similarities in the cultural practices of the Nigeria people. The following are some of the similar cultural practices of the people of Nigeria.

  1. Political System: Each community in Nigeria has a traditional political system under a paramount chief with different titles. These include the obas, obis, ezes, emirs, and the obongs.
  2. Family System: Extended family is a common feature of all cultures in Nigeria.
  3. Respect for elders: According respect to elders is a feature of all communities and cultures in Nigeria. Irrespective of one’s social status, elders are respected in Nigeria and their words of advice are considered important.
  4.  Marriage System: The system of marriage is similar in most of the communities in Nigeria. Virgin brides are highly honoured in Nigeria and her parents  are praised and presented with gifts.
  5. Religion: Religion is the specific system of belief or worship; and it is a way of life based on how people relate with their God. There are three main types of religion in Nigeria; these are Christianity, Islam and Traditional religions. Nigerian people are religious; nearly every Nigerian belongs to one religious group or another. Before the advent of Christianity and Islam, each community believed in the existence of the Supreme being and had a traditional way of relating with Him.
  6. Taboos: All ethnic groups in Nigeria have one form of taboo or another against something. A taboo against something means a belief or custom that does not allow people to do, use or talk about a particular thing, especially in public.
  7. Occupation: Farming and trading are common to all cultures. These form the basic occupation of the people before the arrival of colonial masters.
  8. Cultural Relationship: All groups accept people at home, in the street, in the town as ‘brother’ or ‘sister’ or ‘father’, even if there is no blood relationship. Outside the state or country, whoever is from your state or country is regarded as ‘brother’ or ‘sister’ whenever you meet and discuss with other nationalities.
  9. Naming Ceremony: All cultural groups, all religious practices allow new born babies to be named after a particular number of days of   delivery as stipulated by the group. For examples, yorubas do naming ceremony after eight days of delivery.
  10. Arts and Crafts: All cultural groups in Nigeria have their distinct work of art and craft in form of carvings, sculpture, weaving, etc. for examples, the people of Kano were known for their leather work, the people of Benin city were known for their brass-casting, the people of Abeokuta were known for their tie and dye called adire, etc.
  11. Mode of Eating: Eating habit such as the use of one’s fingers to eat is common to all traditional communities in Nigeria.
  12. Emphasis on Dignity of Labour: Nigerians place high value on dignity of labour, good neighbourliness and patriotism. No job is bad within the Nigerian culture. stealing is abhorred and disrespected.

Evaluation:

  1. State five cultural similarities in Nigeria.
  2. Explain the stated cultural similarities.

Reading Assignment: Read Solakat Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools, Basic 7 by oyewole, A. O. Theme 4, Chapter 8, Unit 8.5, pages 50-52.

 Assignment:

Objective questions:

  1. A belief or custom that does not allow people to do, use or talk about a particular thing, especially in public is a ______ (a).  lie            (b).   taboo           ( c).   fiction (d) storis
  2. In the olden days Nigerians used _________ to eat food( a).   fingers          (b).   spoons        (c).   forks (d) knife.
  3. Adire making is popular among the ____   ( a).   Hausas   ( b).   Igbos    (c).   Yorubas (d) benin.
  4. Extended family is a common feature of all cultures in ________       (a).   Nigeria   ( b).   Australia        ( c).   Germany (d) Togo
  5.  The following cultural practices are common to all Nigerians except ________  ( a).   extended family system           (b).   mode of greetings   (c).   religion (d) none of the above.

Theory questions:

Write brief notes on any two of the following cultural similarities in Nigeria:

  1. Religion
  2. Respect for elders
  3. Arts and Craft
  4. Mariage system

Sub-topic 3: 1. Cultural Differences in Nigeria.

               2.   Identity.

Sub-Topic 1:  Cultural Differences in Nigeria

  1. Language:   This is of the most remarkable difference which distinguishes one culture from the other in Nigeria. We have over 250 indigenous languages in the country.
  2. Religion:   Apart from the two major religions : Christianity and Islam, there are various traditional religious beliefs in Nigeria.
  3. Arts and Crafts: also differs. For instance, while those in the south engage in wood carving, the northerners engage in leather works.
  4. Food:   Those in the southern part of Nigeria eat food made mostly from tubers like fufu while the northerners eat food made from grains e.g tuwo.
  5. Dressing:   The Igbo man wears caftan and ties a wrapper while the woman ties wrapper with a blouse. The Hausa man on the other hand wears a babariga while the woman wear clothes that often cover the whole body.
  6.  Greetings:   The various ethnic groups in Nigeria have their various patterns of greeting. The Yoruba man prostrates before the elders while the female ones kneel down. The Hausa male squats while the female kneel down.

Evaluation:

    Mention five cultural differences among the different ethnic groups in Nigeria.

 2:  Identity

Identity is used to refer to those who share the same culture and regard themselves as one people. Culture is a means of identifying people.

Evaluation:     What is identity?

Levels of Identity:

  1. Family:   Everyone shares his family’s identity through his surname. He identifies with his parents and siblings. The family teaches him the culture of the society in its own way.
  2. Age group:   A person identifies with his age-group. He tries to defend the interest of such group. Each age-group has its own norms and practices which members must obey. It may also have some means of communication which non-members may not understand. Age-group is very important in Igbo land and a man who fails to identify with his age-group may not be recognized.
  3. Town/Village:   A person identifies with his place of birth. He contributes to its progress both in cash and in kind. He belongs to one or more associations in his village or town.
  4. Cultural or Ethnic group:   Another level of identity is the cultural or ethnic group. Each Nigerian identifies himself as a Yoruba, Igbo, Kanuri or Bachama. Language, dressing and eating habits reveals the cultural background of a person.
  5. Local Government:   This is the smallest political unit in Nigeria. Every Nigerian belongs to a local government, the development of which he contributes to and from which he enjoys some services and social amenities.
  6. State of Origin:   A person identifies himself with his state of origin be it Cross River or Taraba State. He may like his state to win in an inter-state sport competition.
  7. National Identity:   All the 36 states form one country which is called the Federal Republic of Nigeria. We are one people under one Federal Government, enjoying the same services and obeying the same law. The Nigeria passport, the National Anthem, the National Pledge and the Nation Flag are all symbols of identity for Nigeria citizens both at home and abroad.

Evaluation:

   Mention five levels of identity

Reading Assignment:

  1. Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools Book 1 ByAbdullahi Ahmed and others. Pages 73 – 74.
  2. Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools Basic Seven. By A. OluwasolaOyewole Pages 50 – 52.

 Assignment:

Objective questions:

  1. All the following are Nigeria National  Symbols EXCEPT
  2. Currency    B.   National Anthem    C.   Language    D.   The Coat of Arm
  3. What is used to refer to those who share the same culture and regard themselves as one people is known as ……………….
  4. Culture.    B.   Identity.    C.   Symbol.    D.   Language.
  5. The most remarkable difference which distinguishes one culture from the other in Nigeria is …………….
  6.  Language.    B.   Religion.    C.   Dressing.    D.   Greeting.
  7. We have over ………. Indigenous languages in the country.
  8. 150     B.   250     C.   350     D.   450
  9. The most common food in the North is food made from ………….
  10. Tuber     B.    Fufu         C.    Tuwo.        D.   Grains.

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