Notes Social Studies

Processes of Socialization

Individuals are socialized into their community through five main processes. They are:

  1. Education (Direct Learning)
  2. Apprenticeship
  3. Incidental learning
  4. Learning from models
  5. Roles learning

Education: This is also known as direct learning. It is a conscious way of learning. It may be formal or informal education. It may take place in the four-walls of the classroom or outside the classroom.

Apprenticeship: This is non-formal education. Here, a person is trained under a master trainer in a practical ways. E.g. carpentry, hair dressing, blacksmithing, tailoring. Etc.

Incidental Learning: Here, a child learns unconsciously from his parents, age group or from his immediate environment.

Learning from Model: Children often copy the way their parents or older siblings behave some even try to behave as their favorite artist or an admired individual does either the way they dress or their mannerism.

Role Learning:  A person learns a new role in the community through information given to him. They learn some of these roles through indoctrination, induction and imitation.


       1.   List five processes of socialization.

       2.   Explain three processes of socialization    

Reading Assignment:  Read chapter 3 of Social Studies for Junior Seccondary Schools by A. Oluwasola Oyewole Pages 42-43

Weekend Assignment:

Objectives Questions:

  1. Socialization can be defined as _________
  2. The process of learning the culture of a community
  3. The process of working in the farm
  4. The religious group
  5. The process of attending social gatherings
  6. The two types of socialization are ________ and __________
  7. human and non-human
  8. large and small
  9. primary and secondary
  10. tertiary and vocational
  11. One of the significance of socialization is ____________
  12. just to enjoy in the community
  13. it promotes peaceful co-existence and social interaction among people
  14. to attend parties and dances
  15. none of the above.
  16. These are process of socialization except.
  17. education and apprenticeship
  18. incidental learning
  19. individualism
  20. role modeling or role learning

Theory Questions:

  1. List five processes of socialization.
  2. Mention types of socialization and briefly define them.

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