Adjectives as Nominals

Adjective can function in the same way that noun do but they must be preceded by the article ‘the’ and must take plural verb. For instance

(i)         The rich sometimes help the poor

(ii)        The poor are always with us

(iii)       The strong often defend the weak

(iv)       The blind are usually provided with accommodation.

(v)        They treated the wounded at the clinic.

Verb as Nominals.

There are two verb form that can  occupy the nominal position the infinitive form such as ‘to’ err’ ‘to, moke’ and the ground such as smok, dancing, and reading. E.g.

(i)         It is prohibited to smoke in the class

(ii)        Smoking is prohibited in the church

(iii)       Dancing is an activity I always enjoy

(iv)       To err is human, to forgive is divine

(v)        Children must learn that reading gives Joy.

(vi)       Her hobby is singing.

Noun Phrases as Nominals.

These are extended noun form. Examples are:

(i)         My Father came here yesterday.

(ii)        Bello beat the man with the blue coat.

(iii)       The student in the blue car will attending like symposium.

(v)        The woman in the green dress is the mother of the girl I the red suit.

Noun Clauses as Nominals

These are clauses used in nominal positions as subject, object or complement. For example;

  • What I hate most is to be late to class
  • Why he did it is still a mystery
  • The good new is that she is here

Lesson 2



Monopthongs is also calls pure vowel which are divided into two (2) segment, i.e seven short vowels and five long ones. E.g I:, I,e, e, ae, a: ,d , c: u, u: , u, , c:, a,

Diphtongs – This is a double sound, The diphthongs are vowels but they differs from the pure vowels because their articulation     involves  glides from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore, a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation. If you far instance the word “toy” the articulation of the diphthong in the word star with /  / and end with /I /.

There are eight diphthongs in English and their phonetic symbols indicate the initial and final vowels represented in the articulation. E.g /ei/, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /.

/ei/ as in pay , again

/  / as in home, go, so

/ / as in rice , kite,

/  / as in cow, house.

/  / as in toy, rice

/  / as in ear , here

/ / as in air, hair

/  / as in poor, tour.

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