Civic Education


A citizen is a person who is recognized by law as a member of a country. A citizen enjoys certain rights and privileges which are written in the constitution of a country to ensure that everyone knows those rights and respects them. Duties are also assigned to a legal citizen of a country.

Thus, citizenship is membership in a community, society or country.

Types of Citizenship

  1. By Birth: When one is born in a particular country, he or she automatically becomes a citizen of that country. For example, a person born in Nigeria and whose parents are Nigerians is qualified to be a Nigerian citizen.
  2. Naturalization: this is through application when such person can pledge his or her allegiance to a particular country.
  3. Registration: A woman who is a citizen of another country but married to a Nigerian husband is a citizen of Nigeria by registration.
  4. Descent: A person born outside Nigeria, but whose parents are Nigerians is a citizen of Nigeria by descent. For instance, a child born by Nigerian couple in London or Washington D.C. in America is automatically a citizen of Nigeria.
  5. Honorary Citizen: The government of Nigeria may confer an honorary citizenship on an outstanding personality from another country.


  1. Itemize and explain 5 types of citizenship.
  2. What is the difference between citizenship by birth and citizenship by decent?

The Process of Becoming a Citizen of a Country (Nigeria)

If a foreign person wants to become a citizen of Nigeria by registration, he can become a citizen of Nigeria by following this process.

  1. He  or she must be above 18 years and of good character
  2. He or she must have spent at least 15 years in Nigeria before such application is tendered.
  3. He or she must be willing to renounce his or her former citizenship
  4. The person must show clear intention to live in Nigeria till death hence; he will take an oath of loyalty to the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This is called “Oath of allegiance”.

This is an example:

Oath of Allegiance

I, (Name of person) do solemnly swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to the Federal Republic of Nigeria and that I will preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. So help me God




  1. Describe briefly how a Ghanaian can become a citizen of Nigeria.
  2. What is citizenship
  3. Who is a citizen?
  4. Describe citizenship
  5. what is the difference between citizen and citizenship?

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