Civic Education Notes


Civil society organizations are non-governmental organizations made up of different kinds of people with various ideas, interest and need, seeking ways to improve their lot as individuals, group, organization or community.

Types of Civil Society

Professional: NMA, NBA,

Labour Groups: Nigeria Labour Congress

Campaign for Democracy

Students Groups: National Association of Nigerian Students

Business Groups: Manufacturer’s Association of Nigeria, NGOS, Co-operatives and Cultural Groups.

Lastly, Religious Groups: Christian Association of Nigeria, Council for Islamic Affairs.

Functions of Civil Society

  1. Civil Society organizations check the excesses of political leaders and military dictatorship.
  2. They place importance on fairness and justice
  3. Civil Society foster peoples participation in governmental development.
  4. Civil Society helps to settle conflicts and mediate in Crisis.
  5. Civil Society monitors the electoral process and also makes elected leaders to be accountable to the electorate

Problems of Civil Society

  1. Sometimes Civil Societies may not be sincere in their motives but have their own narrow interest or hidden agenda.
  2. Some civil society conducts their affairs as though they were at war with government. Having collision course with constituted authority.
  3. Some civil Society groups raise fund from international agencies and not using it for the purpose for which it was donated.
  4. Sometimes, activities of some civil society groups may have the tendency of inciting citizens against political authorities there by causing political crisis.
  5. Some civil society groups enrich themselves by embezzling the money donated for programs.

Qualities of Civil Society

  1. Civil Society groups are civil, Polite and have respect for the laws and other groups.
  2. They get involved in social, political and economic activities of the state and make government to be responsive and accountable.
  3. Civil Society is set up by government.  They are independent of government
  4. Civil Society organizations are involved in charity work e.g old peoples home or national emergency.
  5. Civil Society organizations are set up to make society better and they promote popular interest and participation.

Review Questions

1a.          Define Civil Society

b.            Discuss in outline functions of Civil society

2.            Account for the problems facing the civil society organizations


1a.          What are values?

b.            State six importance of values to the Nigerian society

2a.          Explain the Term Citizenship Education

b.            State four reasons for effective citizenship education of Nigerian youths.

3a.          What is the meaning of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (UDHR)

b.            Highlight any six core rights of Freedoms in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948

4a.          Define Human Trafficking

b.            State six causes of human trafficking in Nigeria.

5a.          What is Drug Abuse?

b.            Highlight six ways by which drug abuse can be curbed in the society.

6a.          List Five consequences of cultism

b.            Highlight five ways by which cultism can be prevented.

7a.          Mention five characteristics of democracy.

b.            State five ways by which the practice of democracy can contribute to National Development

8a.          Explain the term political apathy

b.            State three consequences of Political apathy

9a.          Define the term popular participation

b.            State six reasons for popular participation in the society.

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