Classification Of Kingdom Plantae Based On Botanical Classification

The kingdom plantae is divided into four main phyla or Division

(i)         Thallophyta (algae)

–  They are simple microscopic plant

– They have no true root, stem and leaves

– They are found in aquatic habitat

-They are autotrophic plant i.e. They can synthesize their own food

– They reproduce both by asexual means and sexual means

– They have cellulose cell wall

– Many of them are pigmented such as red, blue, brown in addition to chlorophyll.

– Some are filamentous (algae) and the cells are not differentiated into tissue

(ii)        Bryophyte (Moss and liverwort)

– They are non-vascular multicellular plant

– They have chlorophyll as the only photosynthetic pigment

– They are terrestrial but grow in moist environment

– Their body is differentiated into stem-like and leaf-like structure but no true root, stem and leaves

– They have no vascular tissue therefore they are unable to transport food and material round the body

– They reproduce asexually by means of spores while sexual reproduction by gametes and it takes place in water

– They exhibit what is called alternation of generation.

Division Pteridophyta (ferns)

– Their body is divided into true root, stem and leaves

– They have well developed vascular bundles comprising of xylem and phloem

– The underground stem is rhizome

– They reproduce by means of spores

– They need water of sexual reproduction which is by gametes formation

– The plants are mostly terrestrial while few are aquatic

– They exhibit alternation of generation

– They  have asexual reproductive organ called sori while the sexual reproductive organ is heart- shaped called prothalus


– They are seed bearing plant

– They have well-developed vascular bundles

– They are well-adapted to terrestrial habitat and they are the most successful land plants

The Spermatophyta are divided into two:

(i)         Division Gymnospermatophyta or Coniferophyta

– They are large plant with well-developed vascular bundle with true root, stem and        leaves

– Their leaves are green in colour, small and needle-like

–  Their naked seeds are born in cone because there is no ovary and no fruit

(ii)        Division Angiospermatophyta

– They possess true flowers for sexual reproduction

– They have well-developed true root, stem and leaves

– They have well-developed vascular bundles

– Seeds and fruits are produced after fertilization and the seed are enclosed within the ovary

– They are terrestrial but some are aquatic

– They are terrestrial but some are aquatic

            The Angiospermatophyta is divided into two classes

  1. Monocotylenoneae (Monocot)
  2. Dicotyledoneae (Dicot)
File:Monocot vs Dicot.svg
i.  Leaves have parallel veinsLeaves have network veins
ii. Flowers are generally dull incolour       Flowers are bright in colour 
iii. Embryo has one cotyledon (one seed Leaf) Embryo has two cotyledons (two seed- leaves) 
iv. The size of cortex is narrowThe size of the cortex is wide
v.   It has fibrous root systemIt has tap root system
vi.  Cambium is absent in the stemCambium is present in the stem
vii. Vascular bundles are scattered all over the ground tissue Vascular bundle are arranged in a ring of cambium
Example Maize, palm tree, grassesExamples are Mango, Orange.

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