Agricultural classification is the grouping of plants according to the product for which they are cultivated or grown
- CEREALS OR GRAIN CROPS: These are crops which are cultivated for their grain. They have high starch content. Examples are maize, guinea corn, millet, wheat, ryes, barley and oats.
- LEGIUMOUS PLANT OR POD: These are important plants which contain high protein content. They are source of nitrate in the soil. Examples are groundnut, beans, melon, flamboyant, crotalaria e.t.c.
iii. ROOT CROPS: These are plant which are tuberous and are specialized for food storage. They are good source of carbohydrate. Examples are sweet potatoes, irish potatoes, yam, cassava and carrot iv. VEGETABLE CROPS: These are herbaceous plant which are important constituents of a diet. They serve as source of vitamins and mineral salts. Examples are tomatoes, pepper, onions, cabbage, lettuce, okra and vegetables.
- FRUITS: These are plants that are grown for production of fruits\. Fruits are rich sources of vitamin A, C and minerals. They are usually eaten in their natural form (raw). They include mangoes, pawpaw, guava, bananas, and pineapple e.t.c.
- CASH CROP (ECONOMIC CROP): These are crops grown mainly for the purpose of money making. They include oil producing plant e.g. oil palm, latex crop e.g. rubber, fibre crop e.g. cotton, beverage and drug plants e.g. cocoa and spices.
vii. OIL PLANTS: These are plants that produce oil as food reserve and store it in their fruit or seeds. Example are palm oil fruit and kernel, seed of melon, cotton seed, groundnut, coconut and shea butter.
viii. FIBRE CROPS: These are crops that \are grown for their fibres that are used for making clotting, ropes, sacks e.t.c.
- BEVERAGES AND DRUG PLANT: These are crops that produce non-alcoholic beverages e.g. cocoa, coffee.
- QUININE: is a drug that is obtained from the bark of cinchona spp. It is an anti-malaria drug extracted from plant.
- SPICES: These are vegetables plants that are used to add flavour and taste to modern dishes. Examples are ginger, cloves, pepper, vanilla, nutmeg.
Classification of Plant based on life cycle
- ANNUAL: These are plants that have one growing season. They produce seeds during the first year of growing and then die off. Examples are maize, Guinea corn, wheat, groundnut, bean e.t.c
- BIENNIALS: These are plants that grow for two seasons. The first year constitutes the vegetable stage during which the store of food material is built up and seeds are produced in the second year e.g. cabbage, carrot, cocoyam, cassava e.t.c.
- PERENNIALS: These are plants that grow for three or more seasons or years e.g. shrub and three.
Agriculture is defined as an act of growing crops and rearing farm animals to provide man’s basic need for
(i) Food (ii) Shelter (iii) Clothing (iv) Materials for industrial purposes
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