A clause is a group of words with finite verb. A clause should have a subject and a predicate.
e.g. Idowu bought a piece of land.
Predicate – bought a piece of land
Types of Clause
There are two types of clauses.
- Independent clauses: These are also called main or principal clauses. An independent calsuse expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence.
e.g. My English master is a kind man.
- Dependent Clause: These are also called subordinate clauses. A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning E.g. which he recommended.
There are three types of subordinate clauses.
- Noun Clauses
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that has a noun as the head word. A noun clause performs the functions of a noun. A noun clause is usuallyintroduced by ‘what’ and ‘that’, but ‘that’ is sometimes omitted before the noun clause. A noun clause answers the question ‘what or who?’
Examples of noun clauses
- That he was insulted painted him a great deal.
- The important thing is that he has arrived.
- Honesty is what we want.
Functions of Noun Clause
A noun clause performs the functions of a noun
- Subject of a sentence
What he said is bitter.
That he was insulted pained him a great deal.
- Object of a sentence
The cook us what we should eat
He told us that he would come.
- Complement of subject
Honestly is what we want.
The important thing is that he has arrived
- Complement of object
We call him what he likes.
Complement of a preposition
The prize will go to whoever wins.
- Adjectival Clauses
An adjectival clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adjective. The following conjunctions are usually used to introduce adjectival clause; who, whom, whose, that, which, etc.
Examples of adjectival clauses
- The man who came here is a teacher, (‘who came here’ modifies the noun ‘man’)
- That is the goat that ate our yam. (‘that ate our yam’ modifies the noun’goat’)
- It was he who slapped me. (‘who slapped me’ modifies the pronoun’he’)
- The lady whose car was stolen is crying. (‘whose car was stolen’ modifies the noun ‘lady)
- She has visited the place where he was born. (‘where he was born’ modifies the noun ‘place’)
- Here is the man about whom I was talking to you. (‘about I was talking to you’ modifies the noun ‘man’)
- Adverbial clause
An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adverb. Such as telling us how, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions, the action of the verb is performed. In other words, the adverbial clause modifies the verb in the main clause.
Examples of adverbial clauses
- She sings as if she were happy. (Manner; ‘as if she were happy’ modifies the verb ‘sings’)
- Ada saw him when she came to his office (Time; ‘when she came to his office’ modifies the verb ‘saw’)
- She can be found where the man lives. (Place; ‘where the ‘man lives’ modifies the verb ‘can be found’)
- The man worked so hard that he soon feel sick. (Result: ‘that he soon fell sick’ modifies the verb ‘worked’, together with its modifier ‘so hard’)
- We shall go out if it does not rain. (Condition: ‘if it does not rain’ modifies the verb ‘shall go’, together with its modifier ‘out’)
Types of Adverbial Clauses
The different types of adverbial clause correspond with the nature of information which the clause gives about the verb in the main clause.
- Of time
Emeka did not bring gifts when he visited you last. Before you start writing, study the question carefully.
- Of Place
He left the letter where it could be easily seen.Send us wherever you want to
- Of manner
The Lady is treating is as if we were her servant. The boy danced as though he had been dancing all his life.
vi. Of reason
Because he was wrong, he apologized.
He had to fight back since he had no other option.
v. Of purpose
The athelete trained very hard so that he might win the race.
In order that he might secure a seat, he arrived early at the stadium.
vi. Of result
Sule ate so much food at the party that he started vomiting.
The official worked so hard that he had a breakdown.
vii. Of comparison
Amadi drank more wine than I did.
My brother works as hard as I do.
viii. Of condition
We shall attend his party if he invites us.
Unless he invites us. We shall not attend the party.
ix. Of concession
Although Okorie is poor, he is well respected.
He is intelligent even if he is naïve
Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question a –e page 225, Countdown to English.
Topic: Speech Writing
Characteristic of a written speech
- Formal Salutation (vocatives); There is always an audience to be addressed. In formal situations, people are usually appointed to perform one function or the other. Social ethics demand that you recognize and accord due respect to those at the high table and other dignitaries present at the occasion.
- The use of personal pronouns; The speaker often personalizes his speech by the use of personal pronouns such A I, you, we, he, etc. Which reflects actual speech.
- Use of short forms; Speeches are often characterized by the use of short forms of words and sentences E.g. Sam (for Samuel), I’m ( I am) can’t (cannot) don’t (do not)
- Introducing the Topic: After the salutation, the next logical thing to do is to introduce your topic. Whatever, your topic is, try to introduce it in an interesting manner, showing in one way other that you hold your audience in high esteem, and that you are competent to handle the topic.
- Developing the Topic: Logical sequencing of ideas and coherent presentation are value highly in speech
- Concluding your Speech: The concluding paragraph of your written speech should be rounded off in a neat way so as to reflect your entire speech.
Sample Question: As the new senior prefect of your school, write a farewell speech meant to be delivered at the graduation ceremony of the outgoing SS 3 students.
A FAREWELL SPEECH BY JOHNSON OJO DURING THE GRADUATION CEREMONY OF THE SS 3 STUDENT IN THE SCHOOL HALL ON 30TH JULY, 2010.
The Honourable Commissioner of Education,
Our Dear Parents,
Worthy Graduating Students,
Paragraph 1 – Appreciate the privilege of being permitted to speak, explain the importance of the ceremony, state your purpose.
Paragraph 2 – Commend the graduating students for going through the rigours of years in SSS.
Paragraph 3 – Remind them of the lessons of hard work, determination, uprightness, etc
Paragraph 4 – Inform them of the world outside school and future hurdles like JAMB exams, Campus life, dangers of new found liberty.
Paragraph 5 – Counsel them on the need to choose the path of being academic, social and moral high achievers.
Paragraph 6 – Conclude by thanking the audience for listening, thank the parents for their faith and support, Wish the graduating students success in life and hope for a safe journey back home for everyone.
Evaluation: As the head boy or head girl of your school, write out your address to be presented to the guests of your school during the inter-house sports competition.
Topic: Comprehension: Drama
The passage is an extract from the play by Wole Soyinka titled. ‘The Lion and the Jewl’. In this extract, teacher Lakunle mets with Sidi on her way from the stream. She had a pot of water on her head and this led to the discussion between herself and Lakunle. The teacher strongly opposes the idea of a young girl carry a pot of water on her head and goes ahead to air his view to Sidi.
Evaluation: Questions, page 126.
Topic: Vocabulary: Latin Expression used in English.
Lating was the language of the ancient Romans. Nowadays, few people in Europe elsewhere learn Latin, but until the past 70 years or so, it was a language learn I virtually every educated person.
Here are some Latin expressions that are part of the English language ad hoc: Intended for a particular purpose ad infinitum: for ever
ad nauseam: to the point of making one sick
bona fide: genuine
Curriculum vitae: a summary of a person’s qualifications and career, used to support an application for a job.
De facto: in practice
De jure: by right
Et cetera: and the rest
Exempli gratia: for the sake of an example, generally abbreviated to e.g ex officio: by the virtue of one’s position
Id est: that is, often abbreviated to i.e
in extremis: in extreme conditions
persona non grata: an unwelcome person
ultra vires: beyond one’s powers, said when a person in authority does something which he is not allowed to do.
Evaluation: Practice 1 page 129
Reading Assignment: Direct and Indirect speeches
Weekend Assignment: Revision and test part 2, page 137, Effective English.
Exercise 1 Question 2, page 225, Count down to English.