English JSSCE Notes

Introduction to Figures of Speech ( Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Alliteration, Assonance)

A figure of speech is a phrase or word having different meanings than its literal meanings. It conveys meaning by identifying or comparing one thing to another, which has connotation or meaning familiar to the audience. That is why it is helpful in creating vivid rhetorical effect.

Types of Figures of Speech:

There are many types of figures of speech. Here are a few of them with detailed descriptions:

Personification: It occurs when a writer gives human traits to non-human or inanimate objects. It is similar to metaphors and similes that also use comparison between two objects. For instance,“Hadn’t she felt it in every touch of the sunshine, as its golden finger-tips pressed her lids open and wound their way through her hair?”


It is a type of comparison between things or objects by using “as” or “like.” See the following example: My heart is like a singing bird, whose nest is in a water’d shoot; My heart is like an apple-tree. My heart is like a rainbow shell…


Metaphor is comparing two unlike objects or things, which may have some common qualities.

Example:  He is the dark horse

                   Tobi is a dog

Evaluation: Write on five types of figures of speech

General Evaluation:

1. Write on the following:

A. Simile

B. Metaphor

C. Assonance

D. Alliteration

Weekend Assignment:

Write a letter to your cousin, telling him/ her of your experience in school.

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