Categories
Biology

Living Things And Non-Living Things

Living things are those objects that have life e.g. plant and animals.

Non-living things are those objects without life or lifeless objects.

        CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

  1. MOVEMENT: is defined as the ability of a living organism to move its own body or part of its body from one place to another. Living things move for the following reasons:

– To look for food

– To run away from danger

– To seek mate in time of reproduction

– To respond to external stimuli

  1. NUTRITION: is defined as the ability of living organism to feed to enable them living to be able to carry out life functions such as growth, respiration and reproduction. Living things use two method of nutrition
  • Autotrophic/halophytic nutrition: It is a method used by all green plants and some bacteria which involve manufacturing of their own food from simple inorganic compound through a process of photosynthesis.
  • Heterotrophic/holozoic nutrition: it is a method strictly used by animals to obtain food from the product of plant. They depend on the food produced by plant directly or indirectly since they cannot manufacture theirs.
  1. RESPIRATION: is defined as a process in which food substances within cell of living organism is oxidized in the presence of oxygen to release energy for all life process
  2. EXCRETION: This is defined as the removal of poisonous metabolic waste products from the body or cells of living organism if not excreted will damage the body cells. Metabolism is the sum total of the chemical processes which take place within the cells of the body of the organisms.
  3. GROWTH: is defined as a permanent increase in body and mass of an organism or increase in body complexity as a result of cell division and cell differentiation. Good feeding will enhance increase in body mass.
  4. IRRITABILITY/SENSITIVITY: is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to changes in both internal and external stimuli to include: heat, light, pain, water, sound and chemical substances to which living things respond to.
  5. REPRODUCTION: This is the ability of living organisms to give rise to new offsprings which have the same characteristics as their parents. Reproduction ensures continuity of the species.

Types

  1. Sexual reproduction: This involves two organisms of the same species to produce a new offspring
  2. Asexual reproduction: It involves only one organism to produce another offspring of their kind.
  3. ADAPTATION: is defined as the way in which living organism get used to their various environment in such a manner that they are comfortable in order to survive.
  4. COMPETITION: This is the ability of living things to struggle for all the necessities of life in order to survive in their various environment. Living things compete for food, light, space, water, mates etc. in order to survive and be in continuous existence.
  5. DEATH: All living things must die because they have a definite and limited period of existence.

Differences Between Plants and Animals

PlantAnimal
1. Plant growth in indefinite and apicalAnimal growth is definite and interacting meaning it occurs uniformly in their body
2. Plant has a slow response to externalStimuliAnimal shows a fast response to external stimuli
3. Plant stores food as starch except in                    Animal stores food as glycogenfungiAnimal stores food as glycogen
4. Plant has no specialized sense organsAnimal has specialized sense organ
5. Plant has no fixed number of parts,Always continueAnimal has fixed number of parts which are usually compact
6. Gaseous exchange in plant is through the entire bodyGaseous exchange is through special organ
7. Plant cell has a rigid cellulose all wallAnimal cell has a flexible living cell          membrane
8. Plant cell has large vacuole containing sapAnimal cell has small or no vacuole
9. Plant feed autotrophic allyAnimal feeds heterotrophic ally
10. Plant processes no special excretory Organ Animal possesses well developed    excretory system

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